Turkey on Friday (July 12) received first shipment of Russian S-400 missile defense system hardware from Russia, Turkish Defense Ministry announced.
“The first batch of equipment of S-400 missile defense system, which is procured to meet Turkey’s air and missile defense needs, has started to arrive at Murted Air Base in Ankara,” the ministry said in a statement.
The second Russian military transport aircraft carrying the S-400 missile systems will depart for Turkey soon, according to the Russian news agency TASS.
“The Russian Aerospace Force’s military transport aircraft carrying parts of a S-400 regiment set has arrived in Turkey. Another plane will soon deliver the second batch of equipment to the country,” TASS quoted a diplomatic source as saying. “The third batch, containing more than 120 guided missiles of various types, will be dispatched later by sea. It is expected to happen at the end of the summer,” the agency added.
Turkish S-400 operators plan to train Turkish military service members this month and in August, according to TASS. In May, about 20 Turkish service members underwent training at a Russian training center.
The S-400 Triumph, which became operational in 2007, is designed to destroy aircraft, cruise and ballistic missiles, including medium-range ones. The S-400 system can hit targets at a distance of round 250 miles and at an altitude up to around 22 miles.
The purchase sparked a row within NATO, with the US threatening sanctions against Turkey for buying the Russian-made military technology.
Specifically, the Pentagon fears that Russia will be able to spy on the US-made F-35, the latest generation fighter jet, once S-400 becomes part of Turkey’s defense network, according to German news agency Deutsche Welle. Earlier this year, the US suspended deliveries related to the F-35 and gave Turkey a deadline until the end of July to cancel the S-400 deal. If Ankara did not comply, Turkish pilots training to fly F-35 in the US would be expelled from the country.
US officials also pressured Turkey to buy the more expensive, US-made Patriot missiles instead.
“S-400 is at least twice as cheap as the US system Patriot-2,” UK military expert Richard Connolly at Birmingham University told DW’s Russian service.
“The Russians and before them the Soviet Union were always leading in missile technology,” he added. “The reason for that was that the Americans and the West produced better aircraft.”
Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Less than two weeks ago, Turkish strongman Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that US President Donald Trump reassured him there will be no sanctions over buying the S-400s.
“We heard from him that there won’t be anything like this (sanctions),” Erdogan told a press conference in Osaka, Japan, following a meeting with Trump on the sidelines of the G20 summit.
“It is out of the question that such a thing takes place between two strategic allies. I believe it cannot happen,” Erdogan said.
“By accepting delivery of the S-400 from Russia, President Erdogan has chosen a perilous partnership with Putin at the expense of Turkey’s security, economic prosperity and the integrity of the NATO alliance,” the Wall Street Journal reported a joint statement by Sens. Jim Risch (R., Idaho), Bob Menendez (D., N.J.), Jim Inhofe (R., Okla.) and Jack Reed (D., R.I.).
During a visit to NATO headquarters in Belgium late last month, acting Secretary of Defense Mark Esper said: “If Turkey accepts delivery of the S-400, they will not receive the F-35. It’s that simple.”
According to the UPI, Shanahan sent a letter on June 6 to Turkish Defense Minister Hulusi Akar that Turkey would be pulled from the F-35 Lightning II jet program — including sales and the banning of Turkish contractors — unless Ankara decides not to go ahead with purchasing S-400.
The events in the coming weeks could determine the future of U.S.-Turkish relations, and raise questions about Turkey’s long-term role in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as Russia attempts to build on its own influence in the country in a bid to weaken the alliance, the Wall Street Journal said adding:
“Turkey’s decision to source critical weapons from Russia is a setback for the U.S., which courted Ankara throughout the Cold War for its strategic location on the southwestern flank of the Soviet empire. It is also an economic issue. The U.S. and Russia are world’s biggest arms exporters and their contractors compete for dominance in the sector.”
“The S-400 issue has further roiled years of frayed U.S.-Turkey relations. U.S. officials still recall a key breaking point in 2003 when Turkish officials refused to allow U.S. troops to use Turkey as a launch pad for the invasion of Iraq. American presidents have tried repeatedly to reset relations with Turkey, only to hit new snags,” the Wall Street Journal argued and said:
“Former President Obama’s initial strong relationship with Mr. Erdogan was strained by the U.S. decision to arm and train Syrian Kurdish fighters in the battle against Islamic State that Turkey views as terrorists. The same issue has dogged relations between Messrs. Trump and Erdogan.
“The relationship also was strained by an American refusal to deport a U.S.-based cleric who Mr. Erdogan accuses of fomenting a failed coup in 2016 that led Mr. Erdogan to impose mass arrests and purges. The cleric, Fethullah Gulen, denies the accusation.
“Last summer, Washington imposed sanctions on Turkey when Ankara failed to release an American pastor who had been detained as part of the post-coup sweeps. Turkey eventually released the pastor, Andrew Brunson, and the U.S. partly lifted the sanctions, but the episode left scars, say U.S. diplomats.”
Resistance of Western Hegemony
“For the political elite of both countries, for Erdogan and Putin, it became kind of a symbol of their resistance of Western hegemony,” Ruslan Pukhov, director of the Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, think tank in Moscow. “That’s why they try to peddle the deal by showing both the internal and external public…that surrender is not an option, Pukho was quoted by WSJ as saying.”
The S-400 reflects growing cooperation between Turkey and Russia, including construction of the Russia-financed Akkuyu nuclear power plant, Turkey’s first such facility, and the TurkStream natural-gas pipeline that runs from Russia to Turkey.
Making good on the delivery of the S-400s “shows the whole world that Russia is a reliable supplier,” Mr. Pukhov said. “Imagine: Turkey was a longstanding partner for F-35s, paid down-payments, and the United States refused to deliver.”
Deployed across Russia, from its Kaliningrad exclave in the Baltics to Vladivostok in the Far East, the S-400 has also become a successful export product. In addition to Turkey, Russia has sold the weapon to China and India. Saudi Arabia, one of the top buyers of U.S. military equipment, is in talks with Moscow over a possible S-400 purchase.
Russian state-owned holding conglomerate Rostec said earlier this year that as of late 2018 its arms export order book exceeded $51 billion, a record for the past 10 years, with S-400 supply contracts accounting for some of the largest deals.
“Turkish officials say closer ties with the Kremlin are compatible with NATO membership, and have expressed interest in not being entirely dependent on Russia for air-defense equipment. While taking delivery of the S-400, Turkey has been pursuing talks with France and Italy over the joint production of a rival European system. Industrial partners in the project are expected to submit a detailed study on how to divide workload in the autumn, according to European officials. Turkish Defense Minister Hulusi Akar said Friday that Ankara had not closed the door to buying Patriots from the U.S.,” the Wall Street Journal concluded.