The Mystery Of The Black Coat
By Shalu Nigam
11 August, 2014
Photo Courtesy: Livemint.com
From a perspective of a common citizen, a visit to the local court can indeed be a petrifying experience, even after several changes have been introduced. And the irony is that the court was established with the aim to facilitate and aid the layperson in seeking justice! The hustling-bustling stretches of the corridors of power emanate an air of supremacy, establishing a rich contrast between the anxious visitors and the haughty lawyers adorned in black coats- the robe imparting to them an unbeatable confidence. Hence, the omniscient lawyers establish their authority over powerless citizens on account of their knowledge of complicated laws, devious processes and a complex system which is incomprehensible to the so- called non cogent minds of ordinary citizens! However, in the sweltering heat in Delhi recently, when monsoon has also failed to enchant with its aquatic bliss and has cut across to neighboring area surrounding Delhi while leaving it parched and dry, the visit to the temple of justice becomes more enigmatic as being surrounded by the professionals in the Black blazers makes one feel the heat to be more scorching. Firstly, the color black, scientists claim, absorbs more heat, and secondly, the blazer with full sleeves in the humid weather doesn’t let the sweat dry exacerbating the effects of the clammy climate. This article therefore is about my quest as a lawyer and a researcher to demystify the black coat anomaly as to why one would wear such dress when climate wise it is unsuitable. Is it an illusion of power or a symbol of oppression? Nevertheless, when I reflect years back on my personal experience as an advocate entering the court as a novice, wearing the black coat gave me a feeling of liberation, autonomy and a sense of independence that helped me to find a space in this male dominated profession, but when I sweat profusely in killing summers of Delhi, I realized that it is a tool for oppression and torture.
Voyage of an Enquiring Mind
Wearing black coat during the summer season aggravates summer ailments like dehydration, skin ailments, rashes, nose bleeds, sunstrokes, migraines and other medical ailments as advised by medical experts because firstly, black colour absorb more heat as compared to any other color and secondly, the full sleeve coat even if made of thinner material will not allow the skin to cool off. Yet, this practice of wearing black coat during summers continues by the lawyers almost all over India. This is in spite of the fact that circular has been issued by the Bar Council of India, that the lawyers appearing before the lower court can give up the practice of wearing black coats during summer.
I enquired from a lawyer, an acquaintance of mine, “Don’t you feeling uncomfortable in this black coat in this muggy monsoon when the temperature is above 40 degree Celsius and humidity is killing you?” “What about my professional integrity? It is an integral part of my identity as a lawyer”, pat came the reply. “Yes, it may be a universal symbol of the profession, and impart a sense of achievement to a wearer, but at the same time, it is also a remnant of the colonial rule” I retorted. “It’s a long-standing tradition which eventually becomes a habit once you start wearing it and now lawyers are recognized by this black coat”, he argued. “The dress code is not merely a status symbol, but brings out discipline among lawyers and gives them the confidence to fight for justice. The dress code also differentiates the lawyers from other professionals”, he explained further. “Sure, it is true to all professions, the doctors do wear white or surgeons wear green or blue coat, the judges do wear black robes, and even academicians do associate with the robes and caps when they are awarded with the degrees, however, the higher courts do have a temperature regulation system inside the building and most of the hospitals in Delhi do take care to install equipments to keep hospitals cool, however, this is not the case here. Many of the lawyers are working outside, sitting or running around in sizzling heat wearing those black coats. Are they doing it for the purpose to maintain tradition, to uphold the identity of the profession or carrying out seriousness associated with it?” I asked. “But you have to maintain the professional decorum in any case and another feature of it is to be on time before the judge” he replied and walked away. Dissatisfied with his line of argument, I decided to probe further on this issue as being an advocate myself I cannot believe in this half baked reply about maintaining professional integrity and decorum.
Exploring Legal Provisions
While a little search in the Library among the stacks of Halsbury, Austin, Maine and loads of other English law books besides Law Journals, I found that the rules framed under Section 49(1)(gg) of the Advocates Act, 1961, prescribe the same dress for all the advocates irrespective of the designation. It says:
“Chapter IV Form of dress or robes to be worn by advocates [Rule under Section 49(1)(gg) of the Act1]
Advocates, appearing in the Supreme Court, High Court, subordinate courts, tribunals or authorities shall wear the following as part of their dress which shall be sober and dignified;
Advocates other than lady advocates:
1. (a) a black buttoned-up coat, chapkan, achkan, black sherwani and white bands with advocate’s gown, or
(b) a black open breast coat, white collar, stiff or soft, and white bands with advocates’ gowns.
In either case long trousers (white, black, striped or grey) or dhoti.
2. (a) black and full or half-sleeve jacket or blouse, white collar, stiff or soft, and white bands with advocates’ gowns;
(b) sarees or long skirts (white or black or any mellow or subdued colour without any print or design) or flares (white, black or black-striped or gray):
Provided that the wearing of advocate’s gown shall be optional except when appearing in the Supreme Court or in a High Court.
Provided further that in court other than the Supreme Court, High Court, District Court, Sessions Court or City Civil Court, a black tie may be worn instead of bands.”
A Historical Background
Further probing reveals that the history of the black coat dates back to 1327 when Edward III formulated the costumes for judges based on the dress code for attending the Royal court2. At the end of the 13th century the structure of the legal profession in Britain was strictly divided between judges; sergeants who wore a white coiffure wig on their heads and practised from St Paul’s Cathedral; and the four Inns of Court, divided into students, pleaders, benchers (the ruling body of the Inn) and barristers, who were mostly hail from royal and wealthy families. The attire of these men kept up with the fashion of those times. Vibrant reds and maroons gowns were fashionable in the 15th century, spruced with golden fabric and warmed with fur. Appearance wise there was a little difference between lawyers and the rest of wealthy society. This changed during the 1600s when the glorious displays were repealed. In 1637, the Privy Council ruled that lawyers need to dress according to their “place” in society. Lawyers therefore were decked in full length gowns or “noble robe” modeled on ecclesiastical sensibilities worn both in court and in general public. It was made from a rough fabric blend of silk, mohair and wool stiffened with gum. Predictably, personal modifications soon followed by those who liked to display their “superior” status. Their robes were fanciful adorned with silk tufts. Those in the higher ranks sported hanging sleeves as an additional adornment.
The robes adopted in 1685 were the symbolic of mourning for King Charles II. While there are theories that the passing of Queen Mary II (1694) or Queen Anne (1714) was the trigger, historian J.H. Baker attributes it to the death of King Charles II (1685). These “mourning robe” were designed to have pleated shoulders and bell-shaped sleeves. Again, the higher ranking lawyers’ robes set them apart with flap collars and different sleeves. Similar such robes are worn today. The wigs also follow the fashion of that era. It was believed that gowns and wigs gave a degree of anonymity to judges and lawyers. Different styles of wig were used depending on the hierarchy3. Bands, the official neckwear, also originated in UK, where these were used for legal, official, clerical, priestly and academic use.
But that is the custom started by British. They did so, because it was the fashion of that particular era or they probably used it because of the local climatic conditions. As the rulers, they imposed the same culture and customs on the `colonies’ they acquired without taking into consideration the local climatic requirements or general socio-economic conditions. However, many of these `colonies’ continued with the legacy and adopted the same system, the same culture, the same laws and even the same dress without any changes even after they freed themselves from the imperial rule. For example, in India as well as in its neighbouring countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh situation remains same after decades of independence. Though certain amendments were made in laws and the Constitutions, however, the issue of dress code has been overlooked.
Situation in Other Countries
Not only in South Asia, even in the United States, the judges wear Black robe and the origin of that can be traced to British aristocracy, a system that ensured that the most privileged have the highest positions of power. Thomas Jeffersons, the third US President, and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) was of the view that judges should wear suits which he thought was formal enough to show that judges were serious about their role. Jefferson, being an equalitarian, did not wish to overemphasize majesty of the law. He abhorred aristocracy and wanted judges to dress the way everyone else did, and to be distinguished only by their role. However, John Adams, a lawyer, wanted to keep the distinction of special judicial attire, including the striking red robes and white wigs favored in the British courts. Finally, Adam got the robes, but not the wigs.
Today, in United Kingdom, the lawyers who have to appear before the highest court are allowed to appear in formal dress, traditional dress has been discarded4. The advocates in cases to be heard at the Supreme Court in London are able to "dispense with any or all of the elements of traditional court dress". The reasons given for this transformation are “to underline the court's commitment to providing an appropriate environment and it is in line with the court's goal to make this process as accessible as possible." The lawyers in the family court customarily appeared unrobed in the traditional attire; they wear formal suits to make it less intimidating.
In many Middle Eastern countries, judges prefer to wear a simplistic costume while denouncing fancy Western robes. Africa and Australia have changed their dress code. In Canada, court dress is identical to the one previously worn in England except the wig. The Federal Court of Appeal, the Supreme Court of Canada and the Tax Court require barristers to appear in gown5. The donning of business attire is acceptable by barristers appearing in chambers and in the provincial and territorial courts. The Court dress in Malaysia is based on English court dress, with some modifications. In China, business suits or black gowns (with red stripe on the front) are replacing the military look of the Chinese court system. In Sweden, there is no official court dress for judges and they do not wear gowns. Judges usually wear an ordinary suit.
Coming back to India, a more digging reveals that petitions have been filed by individual lawyers before the respective High courts of Delhi, Tamil Nadu6, Kerala7, Maharashtra8, Madhya Pradesh9 and Gujarat10 High Court, after which certain relaxations have been made. For example, a circular was issued by the Bar Council of India in 2001 that allows lower court lawyers to dispense with the coat from March 15 to June 15 except for the ones appearing before the High Courts and the Supreme Court and recently this has been reaffirmed by the Bar Council11. The Punjab and Haryana High Court recently issued and order directing lawyers to dress appropriately12. Yet, most lawyers religiously adhere to the dress code throughout the year, although subordinate courts are almost never air-conditioned. A petition has also been filed in the court regarding distinction between the gowns worn by the senior counsels and other advocates13
Further, a Pune-based organisation Human Rights and Law Defenders (HRLD) in 2002 carried out a survey of 120 lawyers at Pune's district session court to determine the reaction around this `sartorial protocol’ of wearing black coats in peak summer season14. It observed that nearly half of the respondents agreed that the current dress code was not suited to the Indian climate, around two-thirds failed to appreciate the health ramifications of the black coat. Only 20 percent of the lawyers made use of the exemption; 30 percent were aware of the fact that it is a health hazard, but still continued to wear it. 10 percent wear it because it they think that it sets them apart from the common man, while 30 percent was unaware of such exemption15. Peculiarly, while more than 86 percent said a dress code was necessary, 65 per cent also claimed that the current one had become more of a status symbol and served no real purpose. Recently, a few of the senior advocates did raise their voice against black coats, but no further action has been taken on the same.
Nevertheless, to further analyse the mystery behind the black coat, I decided to discuss the same with a few of lawyers and their clients within the court premises. My interest and curiosity to dig deeper made me to conduct interviews with 54 lawyers and 52 clients, and almost 20 researchers, professors and other people associated with the profession; both men and women from different age groups. Some of the interesting observations are made on both the sides – in favour and against the use of black coats. Many of the lawyers (almost 40 percent), especially stalwarts one, prefer wearing black blazers even during killing heat of summer, however, a few of younger ones (45 percent) do agree that wearing the black coat in summers do cause rashes and is making a major impact on their health.
The Lawyers’ Opinion
Black coat or the black robe, as per 56 percent of the lawyers lends seriousness to their identity and provides a unique visual character to their professional image. It helps to build credibility and command respect from the clients and society, held three-fourth of the respondents. Wearing a dress creates a sense of discipline among lawyers and gives them the confidence to fight for justice opined 44 percent lawyers. “I get a feeling of being an upholder of rights and justice once I put on the coat. It gives me a sense of power. Also it reflects on my status as a qualified person who is capable of handling a complicated legal issue”, suggests a young lawyer who has been practicing for last two years. “It is a uniform that conveys the message of authority, knowledge, meticulousness and steadiness”, added another lawyer who has been practicing for six years. “Black colour is a symbol of the dignity, honour, wisdom and justice and these are the values which any lawyer or the judge has to keep up with. One cannot wear a tee shirt and a jean and come to this temple of justice. You need to maintain the grace and the dignity of the profession. The Black robe or coat has a symbolic value, and today, corporate sector is also promoting the concept of power dressing for its employee so why not you maintain the same trend in the courts too”. His colleague remarked, “Appearance plays an important role in gaining success in today’s world. It is not just about looking good; it’s about looking the part of this great system”. Around half of the respondents were of the opinion that the black coat is now the universal symbol of legal profession. “Law is associated with nobility, justice and peace, and to maintain that one has to take all steps”, says a senior advocate.
About 20 percent of the lawyers interviewed felt that the uniform helps to mitigate hierarchical status within the profession. “It acts as a leveler or an equalizer. A junior lawyer as well as a senior lawyer both need to dress in a similar manner. Also, the lawyers in these courts come from different backgrounds, in such situations, a junior with little earnings and no background should not feel threatened by the one who is experienced and may afford to dress well”, opined a senior lawyer. While responding in favour of the Black coat, a senior woman lawyer argued, “Wearing nearly identical black robes is a way of showing that all the judges are bound equally in their duty to uphold the law and justice. The simplicity of their attire also symbolizes that the judges' and lawyers’ are neutral and humble people and need to work as servants of the people”.
About sixty five percent lawyers were of the view that black represents neutrality. A senior lawyer was of view that, “Now, you cannot call it as a symbol of slavery because, the black coat has become a part of Indian practice and tradition after its prolonged use. Even otherwise we all have been dressing in a foreign style – wearing suits and boots that are foreign to Indian soil, so why are you now raising the question? Will wearing dhoti makes me more Indian? No. It’s a bigoted outlook. This dress code has become a solid identity of the legal professional in India. It is meaningless to change this now”. While arguing further he added, “You young lawyers are representative of pampered and spoiled generation. Look at our time, we all have been wearing this for generations and now you think that it is impractical. You people cannot do without ACs but we have survived and managed our whole lives without these fancy items”. Another senior lawyer while agreeing to him pondered, “Have you ever seen any lawyer falling sick in summer because he is wearing the black coat, I have’nt, though people sometimes whine about heat?”
Another argument in favour of black coat put forward intelligently by a bright young lawyer is that, “Lawyers wear black coat because they need to defend the case and black is the colour of defence. It suggests that law is blind, and is only based on weight of evidence and not on the background of the parties”. On a lighter tone, a young lawyer adds, “It needs not to be washed every day, when you travel around in the dusty climate of Delhi, the black colour hides it all”. However, a female lawyer differs in opinion and argued that wearing such dress leads to hygiene issue as it cannot be washed daily.
Around 30 percent respondents opined that the practice of wearing black coat in hot summers is unfeasible and impractical in India. “It is uncomfortable and makes me feel sick and dizzy in scorching heat, but one needs to wear it because it is a professional compulsion”. “It feels like you are baking and roasting yourself in the oven. And many a times, we have to work in situation where there is no electricity. I get rid of it immediately as I came out of the court room” shares a woman lawyer. “But why then the system has not been changed?” I asked. She countered that the “people who have been following the system for ages or have grown up with the system do not want to think of any other alternative because they feel insecure and are not adaptable to new situations”. A senior lawyer who was in favour of changing the system clarified that, “this denial to think out of the box and adapt to new realities stems from the psychological over-dependence of lawyers on the black coat”. Around one fourth respondents opine that this kind of uniform smothers practice because the hierarchy is maintained through the choice of fabric16, the cut and tailoring besides the knowledge of English language17. “Black is a colour of oppression and an artifact of past that symbolizes nothing”, argued a lawyer.
Enforcing Dress Code Promotes Elitist, Hierarchical Patriarchal Culture
The dress code may lead to creation of an elitist, hierarchical and patriarchal culture in the courts, hold 15 percent of the respondents. A female lawyer added that, “Women lawyers in particular have to adhere to conservative rules when it comes to dressing style, primarily because they rarely want to argue with a judge on the issue of dress and secondly the environment within the court is not women friendly. You may not want that a judge or the senior hates you or condemn you because of your dress, because your clothing conveyed a lack of respect, or offended them in some other manner. And after recent rape and sexual harassment cases, the environment has become more hostile”. This has been highlighted in a controversy in Karnataka High court too18. Failure to adhere to the dress code carries a greater threat than merely being embarrassed in court. A female lawyers’ very existence may not be recognised if the precise observances are not adhered to as highlighted in a recent debate created in a subordinate court in Delhi where a lawyer nun wearing a black coat and a while band over her habit appeared before the court19. A woman lawyer explained that “It’s hard to practice in the court, which is very much a boys’ club. Female lawyers struggled hard to adhere to a careful balance of masculine and feminine values”. A young female lawyer who has been practicing for three years elaborated that, “Outside, the courts if I walk with this coat I sensed an authority, however, inside the court premises, when I walk wearing this dress, that feeling is lost because I may be doing trivial jobs for a senior. I abhor the compulsion of this incarceration”.
Client’s Views relating to Black Coat of Lawyers
Interestingly, clients and those in academics, research and civil society have different versions to share. For most of the clients, black robes or the black coats is an icon of prestige, power, authority and intimidation. “As black ink writes the destiny of people, so black coats and robes worn by the lawyers and judges can shape the future of the clients whether as culprits or in providing relief depending on which side one is standing”, sharply observed a woman client. “It is being said that ‘law is blind’ and cannot see anything without proofs and evidence, hence, the black coats symbolize blindness” explained a client. The client’s perspective was vast ranging from occult and astrology to their opinion about rights, authority, law and justice. “In the courts, everything has to be laid out in black and white, therefore, lawyers and judges wear black to give the message that no one can lie in the courts”, prudently suggested a client. From the client’s perspectives, black coat is a tool to maintain professional distance. “Black and white represents the two opposite ends. Black is associated with dark, evil and corrupt while white is for purity and goodness. That is why doctors wear white as they do the pious work of saving lives whereas black coats for advocates as it is believed that they manipulate and mould the case in their favour” revealed a client. “Black symbolizes despair, pain and death. A lawyer leads to or prevent any of those depending on the case” stated a male client aged 38 years.
Around three fourth of the client respondents feel that are intimidated by the manner in which lawyers dress and hold themselves. “Black is a colour on which nothing works, a judge or a lawyer should not listen to anything else except truth”, says a woman client. “In astrology and in the occult texts, wearing a black garment implies curse and bad luck. Therefore, they say that the kachcharis (courts) are a curse you get it because of your past bad karmas. Black coat is therefore a warning to improve your karma in this birth” argued a male client. “Saturn is associated with black colour and that represents an evil and lawyers and judges deal with evil all the day therefore they wear black” explained another. “These professionals have to be very dedicated to be able to withstand uncomfortable conditions for hours. They are tough and capable of seemingly enormous tolerance for the intolerable”, admired a senior old man.
Other Professionals’ Views
Most of the other professionals were of the view that the black coat tends to breed an exaggerated sense of power, intimidation, mystification, alienation, exclusion and coercion. “The dress instills fear in the minds of people and creates a distance between the people from the lawyers. It hinders the concept of making judiciary people-oriented or people friendly”, says a professor. “The lawyers are the first contact for citizens who need to access justice, and creating such uniform codes alienates them from the common people”. Current Additional Attorney General of India, Mrs Indira Jaising opined that such symbolism in the courts should be discarded20. She justifies that “It is legacy of British and serves no purpose. If we must indeed wear something formal, let it be short coats.” “It is a kind of social suicide”, shared an expert. Justice Chandrashekhar Dharmadhikari, a retired chief justice of Maharashtra in his speeches often says that the language of the courts in India is foreign, the laws are imported, and the dress is not ours. “Not having a dress code can jeopardise the court's dignity,” he observed. “But it should be in tune with our circumstances and psyche”, he added. While addressing the convocation in Bhopal, the former environment Minister Mr Jairam Ramesh called the practice of wearing a traditional gown as barbaric and colonial21.
The Journey Continues….
Like law, the black coat is full of fascination and admiration and somehow there is also an enormous compassion for this mystical object. Yet, considering different views shared by different category of people several questions have been raised. Is there is a need to change the dress code mentioned in the Advocates Act, 1961? Is black coat a tool of oppression or liberation? Do we need to really overcome our belief regarding the universality, supremacy and continuity of the imperial legacy in the manner as it has been continued for the past few decades? Is it mute and unquestioning blind obedience for rules and traditions imposed by colonial rulers? Is black coat of the lawyers’ uniform a form of oppression masked under the grand narrative of necessity and inevitability? Are the lawyers treating themselves with cruelty while knowing and accepting the situation which is harmful when they dress up in a costume that is not suitable for the climate and weather of our country? Is it because of false prestige attached to the black coat that we want to continue with it? Is it a sign of the servile colonial mentality of our legal system? Is this dress creating a hurdle in formulating a people’s friendly judiciary and the legal system? Can by not wearing the black coat will one be able to experience new ideas and practice as vociferously? All these questions are still boggling my mind. Do you have answers or will you like to give your creative, out of box suggestions to resolve this mystery!
Shalu Nigam is an Advocate and a Researcher and has been working on Gender Justice and Human Rights Issues. She can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org
1 The Advocate’s Act 1961
2 Haque Emdadul (2012) The Tradition of Lawyer’s Dress Code, July 1, The Daily Star issue 277 http://archive.thedailystar.net/law/2012/07/01/depth.htm
3 Haque Emdadul (2012) History of Costumes for Lawyers: Magnificence vs Ridicule http://www.banglanews24.com/Law/English/detailsnews.php?nssl=093f65e080a295f8076b1c5722a46aa2&nttl=2012071259
4 Gordon Cathy (2011) Supreme Court Lawyers Allowed to Dress Down, The Independent November 21 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/supreme-court-lawyers-allowed-to-dress-down-6265567.html
5 Ontario Justice Education Network (undated) Handout: Traditions of the Courts http://www.ojen.ca/sites/ojen.ca/files/sites/default/files/resources/Traditions%20of%20the%20Courts.pdf
6 Narayanan Vivek (2014) Lower Court Lawyers May Avoid Black Coats in Summer, The Hindu July 26, Chennai http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-tamilnadu/lower-court-lawyers-may-avoid-black-coats-in-summer/article6251080.ece
7 The Indian Express (2013) Soaring Mercury sees Lawyer red over Black Coats March 9th Kochi http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/article1494186.ece
8 Dna India (2006) Order, order, it is summer time March 19 http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report-order-order-it-is-summer-time-1018746
10 Soni Nikunj (2009) Just Chill and take off Your Courts, Guj HC tells Lawyers March 27 DNA India http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-just-chill-and-take-off-your-coats-guj-hc-tells-lawyers-1243079
11 Legal Era (2014) Black Courts not Compulsory for Lower Court Lawyers July 28 http://www.legalera.in/news-deals/atn/others/item/14014-black-coats-not-compulsory-for-lower-court-lawyers-bci.html
12 Tripathi Shishir (2013) HC dressing-down for dist court lawyers: Wear proper dress, The Indian Express, October 1 http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/hc-dressingdown-for-dist-court-lawyers-wear-proper-dress/1176696/
13 JR Prashar v BCI decision 9th July 2002 AIR 2002 Delhi 482
14 Kabra Harsh (2010) Black Armour of Law, The Hindu May 30, http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-sundaymagazine/black-armour-of-law/article790666.ece
15 The Times of India (2009) Black coat gives us Identity, Says Lawyers, Pune edition May 12 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/Black-coats-give-us-identity-say-lawyers/articleshow/4511551.cms
16 Venkadesan S (2011) Sewn to those Black Coats and Robes, The Indian Express, July 7 http://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/chennai/article415943.ece?service=print
17 Advocate Ashok Aggarwal quoted in the Hindu May 30 opcit.
18 Yamini P (2014) Senior Male Advocates in HC chases a Skirt Controversy, DNA Syndication March 23 http://dnasyndication.com/showarticlerss.aspx?nid=LFvxfOP6g93dPulsPXSkakNt6Xiq8Q0sfdQkfEZxovLLv4iM=
19 Gulati Sumegha (2014) A nun-lawyer’s habit starts a dress code debate in Delhi, The Indian Express April 18th http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/a-nun-lawyers-habit-starts-court-dress-code-debate-in-delhi/
20 Raman Anuradha (2013) Wrap Up the case: Of the Advocate’s Robe, Delhi Heat and a Tweet, Outlook May 27 http://www.outlookindia.com/printarticle.aspx?285452
21Anand Deevakar (2011) Colonial Legacy – In Black and White: Lawyers want respite from the black robes during summer March 24, Governance Now http://governancenow.com/views/columns/colonial-legacy-black-and-white
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