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A Publication
on The Status of
Adivasi Populations
of India




Everyday Survival, Everyday Struggle: Fighting Against Hunger In South Asia

By Shalu Nigam

26 January, 2015

The Global Hunger Index Report, 2014 indicates that the hunger is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia and the irony is that it is more rampant among people who are the producers of food. The report also noted that the `hidden hunger' or the deficiency of micro-nutrients, is much prevalent in Africa, South of the Sahara and the South Asian Continent. In the 21 st century when the civilization boasts of its technology, development, and fast paced advancements why so many people are starving? Does hunger persists due to famine, flood or other natural disasters or is it a manmade disaster? Is hunger a part of larger agricultural crisis that is aggravating farmer suicides and causing starvation deaths across the continent? Why after decades of independence, people in South Asia are hungry? What is the role of state in providing food to its starving citizens? This essay looks at the issue of hunger in South Asia and examines the manner in which ordinary people are fighting against it. It argues that hunger is manmade phenomenon and is inextricably linked to ecological imbalance created due to faulty policies adopted by the governments across the continent. To combat hunger the need is to create an alternate paradigm which focus on food sovereignty, decentralized decisions making and control of people rather than markets over production, distribution and consumption of food. The right to food must be comprehensively construed to address the structural roots of hunger.

Hunger Amidst Plenty; Poverty Amidst Prosperity

South Asia is rich in natural resources and is endowed with diverse cultures. It has a prosperous agricultural heritage and is based on an agrarian economy. The region is also once known as the food provider to the world, today, is a home to millions of people who are hungry 1 . Hunger exists despite of the fact that the continent cultivated 225 million tons of paddy accounting for 32% of global production in 2013 2 . India contributed a little less than a quarter of global production of rice. Bangladesh has produced 50 million tons of paddy while Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka together produced 17 million tons of paddy. South Asian rice exports increased from 2 million tons in the early 1990s to 14 million tons in 2013. Yet, regardless of increase in production of food, almost 60% people here live in poverty and hunger. Growth and technology could not change the situation and a large mass of population is living in state of scarcity, paucity, exclusion and inequity in the region.

The Global Hunger Index 2014 ranked 120 countries out of which India is positioned at 55 th position, Bangladesh and Pakistan at 57 th position, Nepal at 44 th and Sri Lanka at 39 th position 3 . Moreover, hunger in South Asia is much more beyond the deficiency of micro-nutrients. It implies chronic starvation, prolonged deprivation, deeply entrenched poverty and entails a struggle to survive 4 . According to UNICEF, one million children under five years of age die every year due to malnutrition related causes in India 5 . A dditionally, the 3 rd National Family Health Survey in India in 2006 confirmed that the child (under three) malnutrition rate in India is 40% and 79% of children under 35 months of age are anemic 6 . The National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 7 highlights that `58.1% of households were food insecure nationally'. This report further notes that, “Pakistan's economy is largely dependent on agricultural output. The country's farmers cultivate sufficient amounts of diverse crops to feed most of the population, which makes the degree of malnutrition even more distressing” 8 . The situation also indicates that stunting, wasting, underweight women and children and micronutrients malnutrition are endemic in Pakistan 9 . In Sindh, Pakistan, 35% of children under five years of age, died due to vicious cycle of malnutrition, the figure is worse than extremely poor African nations like Niger, Mali or Togo 10 . Official data shows that 30% of Nepal's rural people are landless and most of them live in extreme poverty and starvation, whereas 54% are tenants on the land 11 . Also, paddy farmers account for 69% of the population, but many of them are landless and face food insecurity. In Bangladesh 31% population live below poverty line and prevalence of child (under 5 years of age) malnutrition is 40%, one of the highest in the world 12 . 60% of farmers here are landless 13 . Thus, it may be said, that in spite of claims made by the governments in South Asia of fostering economic growth and food surpluses `what exists in surplus is hunger' 14 .

Children, men and women, across the continent are dying of starvation because of unequal distribution of benefits of so called `development' that has resulted in income disparities, accentuated inequalities in power structure, unequal opportunities and asymmetrical distribution of resources 15 . Hunger, in this continent occurs not because of lack of availability or low production of food or because of increase in consumption due to population explosion, rather, hunger, here is a result of inequalities that is making a deep impact and marginalizing people. Enormous surplus of food is available and yet millions are starving because of adoption of neoliberal policies by the nations across South Asia 16 . It may therefore be concluded that hunger is a major manmade disaster.

Hunger Injustice and Food Oppression in South Asia

South Asia, as a region is a product of an array “of global, regional and local political processes, which in turn, reflect different configurations of power relations and history” 17 . The countries in this region share significant similarities in terms of livelihood, diet, culture, lifestyle and status. Besides a common element that is widespread and cut across the geography is increasing hunger, rising poverty, mounting malnutrition, escalating food insecurity, intensifying unemployment, growing landlessness and low literacy. Historically, South Asia is characterized by a model of economic and social exclusion, based primarily on the concentration of agricultural land ownership in hands of a few and exploitation of peasants, landless and indigenous labour. The structural and systemic problems relating to patriarchy, feudalism, hierarchy, religion, caste-based discrimination and segregation, have further aggravated the situation. C orruption, mal-governance and transnational crime are commonly prevalent features of the continent and impacts of colonial legacy are reflected decades after the region gained independence. Colonialism has made a dent on the economy of the region and also has played a vital role in shaping its political and social environment. Most of the South Asian countries after gaining independence, continued with the autocratic regime consisting of traditional state versus subject system of ruling despite adopting either parliamentary or presidential forms of governance.

Further, the Green Revolution initiated in most of the South Asian countries to counter food insecurity has its own drawbacks. It was implemented without consulting women, farmers and others who were producers, cultivators and harvesters. The policy has failed to eliminate hunger. Rather, it intensified inequalities and destroyed sustainable agricultural practices. Green revolution reshaped agriculture practices to make it more chemical-intensive, capital-intensive and fossil fuel-intensive. These industry-based farming policies introduced use of pesticides and fertilizers causing harm to the ecosystem. It is under the green revolution that the concept of genetic engineering and synthetic biology were introduced `that reduced life of raw materials, complex systems to machines and diversity to monocultures' 18 . The agribusiness based farming system is one that has high input cost with lower yields than that was produced by the traditional farming methods. Even if the new methods produce higher yields of commodities, yet these give a lower output of nutrition per given area of land 19 . Spontaneous crops like amaranth greens ( chaulai ) and chenopodium ( bathua ) that are rich in nutrition are treated as “weeds” and sprayed with toxins under the market based farming system 20 . Production of staple food like wheat is reduced and is being replaced by Bt Cotton 21 . Under the new farming system all that is beneficial to masses is destroyed to promote all that is profitable to a business. Introduction of mechanized farming destroyed rural livelihoods. Industrialization of agriculture exploited small farmers by grabbing their land in the guise of development and pushed farmers into debt. It intensified hunger and poverty, and yet further expansion of capitalism is offered as solution to the crisis.

Additionally, neo liberalism resulted in increasing inflation, growing scarcity and changing consumption patterns, thus putting food beyond the reach of poor people. Farmers are being forced to cultivate smaller areas of land or even evicted from their land. They are compelled to procure costly chemicals and non-renewable seeds and sell the crops they harvest to pay back debt. In the process, they lose entitlement to their own produce and hence get trapped in poverty and hunger. Marginal farmers, peasants and those who survive on small holdings cannot feed themselves or their families from the crops they grow or harvest. Women end up being the worst sufferers of hunger, specifically when men migrate to cities in search of a better income opportunity; women are often left solely to take on the burden of household. Hunger, thus is created because biodiversity is destroyed, indigenous knowledge about soil, land and farming is destructed and people are denied rights to the forest or its produce. Hunger is produced because food democracy is replaced with eco-apartheid and bio-imperialism.

Today, each country within the South Asia continent is grappling with its own historical, political and social processes which have made a deep impact on the citizen's state relationship. Further, with advent of the neoliberal regime and under the pressure from the international organizations like IMF and WTO, the state is rolling back from its responsibilities towards citizens leaving masses of people in crisis. Multinationals are controlling food production and distribution at the expenses of small farmers. Corporations targeted these countries because the regulatory systems are weak and can be manipulated easily. Also, the level of hunger is high to expand businesses. The governments in these developing nations focus on short term economic gains, and under pressure designed policies that are anti-poor and anti-people thus resulted in threatening food security, undermining land, water and energy rights besides affecting the right to livelihood and natural resources. For example, in India the cultivable land is reduced by 790000 hectares in four years from 2007-08 to 2010-11 and the reasons for this decline are attributed to diversion for the use for non agricultural purpose including construction, industries and other development activities 22 .

In terms of hunger, none of the country in the continent could claim of ensuring the right to food or food security to all of its citizens. Economic and social inequalities seriously limit the options and opportunities available to the rural and tribal people. The food distribution system further does not address the issues relating to nutrition, quality of food or equity in terms of distribution. To sum up, it may be said that sophisticated systems and technologies have been developed that are used as a tool by politicians and corporations to suppress and subjugate the illiterate, the poor and the hungry, however, the same weapons are not utilized to eradicate ignorance, illness, poverty or hunger.

States and the Starving Citizens in South Asia

The constitutions of almost all South Asian countries oblige the governments to take care of their citizens yet the right to food is not specifically mentioned as the fundamental right. Irony lies in the fact that civil and political rights are considered as justiciable rights while the social and economic rights are not. What is ignored in this framework is that the civil or political rights may appear pointless to a citizen who is starving or dying of hunger. Further, while framing the welfare schemes , the system – governments, judiciaries or parliaments treat people as ‘objects'. Frederic Bender has observed that “the causes of world hunger are primarily, although not entirely, social and economic in origin and typically are perpetuated through political and institutional violence, i.e., through the violation of human rights of the impoverished." 23 Or in other words, majority of population is intentionally kept hungry, poor and illiterate by denying them the basic social and economic rights essential to survive.

Moreover, while allocating resources under the `welfare schemes', debates are being made to slash the `scarce resources' by erroneously debating or estimating the `poverty line' 24 . The fallacious argument of “More mouths to feed than what is produced” states that food shortage exists due to increase in population and therefore solutions lie in birth control and production of more food. However, it ignores the fact that systemic causes such as inequity in distribution, inflation, hoarding, investments in large scale GMO farms that have higher input costs, enhancing bio fuel markets, marginalizing indigenous farming practices, faulty policies and emphasizing on production of crops that require intensive cultivation practices, all leads to food insecurity 25 .

Nonetheless, hunger is a matter of justice not of charity or beneficence. This may be asserted on the basis on the concept of moral and distributive justice and social obligation of the state. As per the Rawl's theory of social justice 26 , everyone's basic subsistence and security rights must be met. Denial of food as a basic right negates the existence of individual as a person with dignity or respect and ultimately affects his or her right to survival. The argument of lack of availability of resources with the state seems to be hollow as the state can in no way function when its citizens are dying of hunger and starvation. It is the basic obligation of any welfare state to ensure that citizens must be fed and their basic needs are met. Also, Sen and Dreze 27 argued that mass starvations arise not because of lack of food rather these happen due to lack of social entitlement to food. In fact, it has been noted that many countries exported food during the period when starvation occurs 28 . Hence, food insecurity is not caused by the food shortage rather it occurs because of wrong policies adopted by the governments.

Globally as well as regionally the right to food remains as a challenge and reflects on the governments' inability to fix the food system or to provide solution to its hungry citizens. In fact at the international level too, hunger remains a major barrier to the development because the World Food Summits, Human Rights Declarations or any other efforts to tackle hunger could not feed 850 million hungry people on the planet. The reasons being that these international documents vest discretion and authority to the states to determine entitlements thus reducing food right to a mere obligation of the governments while neglecting justice to the hungry and starving earthlings. Billion dollars are being spent on Food Conferences, collection of data on technologies to enhance production and availability yet, scores of farmers committed suicide, because the issue of growing corporate control over the food production, consumption and distribution patterns could not be curbed. Also, poor or hungry people do not have a strong political lobby and lack strength to compete with muscle and money that rich corporate giants may deploy, therefore, even at international and national level mere lip services are being paid to the issue of hunger and poverty rather than putting in real effort or will to eradicate these social and economic evils 29 .

Farmer's Suicide and Agrarian Crisis

Since 90s, the news for the farmers' suicides is appearing mainly when the government introduced the policy of economic liberalization 30 . Around 1.98 lakhs farmers committed suicide between 2002 -12 according to the Indian Rural Development Report 31 . As per another estimate a quarter of million farmers committed suicide in 16 years thus on an average, one farmer commits suicide every 30 minutes 32 . In a mineral and resource rich state of Maharashtra, at least 10 farmers kill themselves everyday on an average for past ten years 33 . A large number of those affected are cash crop farmers and cotton farmers. One of the causes of suicide is introduction of genetically modified crops which require high capital in terms of seed and yield is not much therefore farmers take loan but could not pay back. Indebtedness, land alienation, land degradation due to excessive use of chemicals, economic distress, poor irrigation, reduced farm productivity, medical problems, social pressures, indifference of the state towards the need of farmers, lack of concerns towards agriculture sector and apathy towards rural areas are a few of the other major reasons. Declining opportunities in non-farm employment further aggravated the crisis 34 . Expensive relief schemes initiated by the government could not bring relief because of various lapses 35 . The slogan Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan (Salute the Soldiers and Celebrate the work of Farmers) turned into `Hail Globalization and Blindly Adopt Corporatization, Nuclearization and Militarization' by the states in South Asia leading to agrarian crisis.

Empty Bellies, Tough Resistance: Hunger Rebellion in South Asia

With the amplification of exploitation during neoliberal regime, peoples' movement is also growing stronger. To resist against injustices, inequalities, oppression and inaction by the state, hunger rebellion has been going on in South Asia where people are joining hands. On the one hand, when the state is pushing for economic reforms that cater to the market agenda, yet on the other hand common people are organizing together to determine the course of their own lives, fighting for their rights and justice and to hold the governments accountable. Refusing to give up under the pressure from the state or the corporations, people are responding in an innovative and systematic way against capitalism and neo liberalism. The assertion of rights to land and forest, the right of farmers to produce, and the right to survive amidst hunger and poverty are the causes that are uniting farmers, peasants and common people. Citizens across the continent are actively pursuing their rights and voicing their dissent ; rather agreeing to be treated as passive recipients of welfare services or government action or inaction.

Demands are being made for creating an environment that fosters food sovereignty and sustainable livelihoods while democratizing development. Steps are being taken to strengthen local agriculture system. Law has been used as a tool to claim entitlements 36 . Though the right to food is not expressively laid down in any of the rule books yet it is being interpreted through reading in other provisions 37 . For example, in the Indian constitution, Article 21 provides for right to life with dignity, which is a fundamental right and can be enforced in the court. Right to food therefore is construed as a part of the right to life. Also, reading these provisions with those under Article 47 through which the state is obliged to raise the nutritional status of the population and under Article 39 under which a State needs `to ensure the right to adequate means of livelihood' the right to food is interpreted broadly 38 . A Public Interest Litigation has been filed by the PUCL in India using these constitutional provisions 39 . Campaign on the Right to food in India has been initiated that is striving to ensure equitable entitlements through food procurement and distribution besides addressing agricultural crisis. As a result of persistent struggle, the National Food Security Act 40 was enacted in 2013. The Act brings together several existing and new schemes under one umbrella to provide food security and expand the public distribution systems. It created maternity entitlements by providing free meal for all pregnant and nursing mothers and for children under the age of six. However, there are pitfalls as it does not provide any relief to subsistence farmers nor does it deal with the vital issue of land reform, agrarian crisis or strengthen rural livelihoods. Also, it excludes a large number of people out of its purview 41 .

Moreover, several innovative programmes are being taken up like Kudumbshree in Kerala to eradicate poverty 42 under the state law to conserve ecological system 43 . The laws like Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act, 2001 44 , National Biodiversity Act 2002 and other laws were enacted in India to protect the rights of farmers 45 , though several other significant Bills elapsed because of lack of political commitment 46 , while amendments are being made by the government in Land Acquisition Act to take way the rights of people to own land 47 . Further, people are using their indigenous knowledge to save what is essential and discard want is immaterial. For example, women from slums in Delhi came together for Sarson satyagraha to save mustard oil and drive soyabean out under the slogan ‘ Sarson bachao, Soyabean bhagao ' (Save the mustard and drive out soyabean) 48 . In Bangladesh, Kansat struggle which has been initiated as a peasant movement and later it involved other sections of society including Bangladesh Krishak Samity against corruption undemocratic and arbitrary practices 49 . People's Long March was held in 2011 where millions of people walked on the street to reclaim the ownership of land and natural resources fighting against the MNCs who were grabbing their rights 50 . In Nepal more than 500,000 people marched on the streets of Kathmandu to restore civilian supremacy and democracy 51 . In Sri Lanka, farmers, fisheries, labourers and plantation workers marched in Colombo on the World Food Day (16 th October) to ensure food sovereignty of the people. The demands include right of food producers to the resources, promoting regenerative agricultural practices and consumer's rights to safe and nutritious food 52 .

In parallel, an alternative development paradigm is being proposed, which focuses to establish genuine democracy, promote human rights, emphasize food sovereignty, ensure land rights and rights to local resources, guaranteeing women's rights, tribals and dalits rights, strengthening labour rights and social security and assure environmental protection. Movements are becoming instrumental in achieving these goals. At the global and regional level, pressure is being mounted to support pro-people policies and programmes. Such movements are advocating for the need to create a new democratic and just global policies, eliminating unfair or discriminatory practices and dismantling structural adjustment programmes, among others.

Striving for Food Sovereignty and Food Democracy

Food Sovereignty implies that people who produce or consume food should control the mechanism of food production, distribution and allocation rather than the dominant corporations or the markets based systems. It argues that the free trade economy has prevented the growth of local agricultural practices. Food democracy on the other hand fosters the right of people to healthy living and production as well as consumption of culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sustainable methods. Focus is therefore laid on endorsing indigenous agriculture methods that preserve ecosystem and encourage a self reliant economy. Efforts are being made to address the structural causes of hunger and poverty in a comprehensive manner and the struggles are fought based on the principles of ‘justice, equity and ecological sustainability'.

To eliminate hunger, governments are being held accountable. Pressure is build to obligate the governments to create conditions that allow people to access sufficient, healthy and culturally suited food through their own means. It is being emphasized that to eliminate hunger it is e ssential is to secure land, forest and water rights; encourage solutions that promote efficient use and conservation of natural resources and foster more efficient and effective use of natural resources, fostering women centered agriculture and eco systems and ensure that food is available to all in equitable people friendly manner. A bubble up approach is being followed as opposed to trickle-down theory being adopted in the South Asia to resolve hunger that asserts the ability of countries to feed their own people if they focus on agriculture for subsistence rather than for export. Stress is laid on the need to create food democracy by preserving biodiversity agro-ecological and sustainable systems of food production that work in harmony with the nature. What is required is to strengthen this citizens' struggle for food democracy and sovereignty and hold the states accountable across the continent in order to abolish hunger and eradicate poverty and most importantly to eliminate rising inequalities in long run. An immediate action that is essential is to develop a strategy to feed all inhabitants in the continent who are hungry, starving or malnourished. To sum up I would like to quote these lines from the poem the Deserted Village by Oliver Goldsmith written in 1770

Ye friends to truth, ye statesmen, who survey

The rich man's joys increase, the poor's decay,

' Tis yours to judge how wide the limits stand

Between a splendid and a happy land”.

The Author is an activist and a researcher working on gender, governance and law issues. She has written several books and articles. She may be contacted at [email protected]


1  South Asia Alliance for Poverty Eradication (2014) Introduction to Crises, Vulnerability and Poverty in South Asia: People's Struggle for Justice and Dignity http://asj.upd.edu.ph/mediabox/archive/ASJ-50-1-2014/07-Introduction-Crisis-Vulnerability-Poverty-South-Asia-SAAPE.pdf

2  http://irri.org/rice-today/rice-in-south-asia

3  Welthungerhilife, IFPRI, Concern WorldWide (2014) Global Hunger Index: The Challenge of Hidden Hunger, http://www.welthungerhilfe.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Themen/

4  Nigam Shalu (Forthcoming) Revisiting Hunger in South Asia, South Asian Journal

5  The Times of India (2015) India tops Malnutrition Chart in South Asia, dated January 21, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/India-tops-malnutrition-chart-in-south-Asia/articleshow/45961120.cms

6  National Family Health Survey 3, (2005- 2006) Key Indicators http://www.rchiips.org/nfhs/pdf/India.pdf

7  Government of Pakistan (2011) National Nutrition Survey, Planning Commission, Planning and Development Division, Conducted by Aga Khan University http://pakresponse.info/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Ao4s-rwdFVI%3D&tabid=117&mid=752

8  Ibid. p16

9  Aljazeera (2014) Hunger kills Scores of Children in Pakistan Dated March 10 http://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia/2014/03/hunger-kills-scores-children-pakistan-201431010931901109.html

10  Talpur Mustafa (2014) Why are Children dying of Hunger in Sindh, Pakistan? http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/blogs/southasiamasala/2014/04/01/why-are-children-dying-of-hunger-in-sindh-pakistan/

11  One World South Asia (2011) Poor governance, corruption driving malnutrition and hunger in South Asia dated February 1 http://southasia.oneworld.net/news/poor-governance-corruption-driving-malnutrition-and-hunger-in-south-asia#.VI5VbDgfpjo

12  http://thp.org/our-work/where-we-work/bangladesh/ accessed on January 11, 2015

13  http://www.hfwbd.net/about-us/hunger-in-bangladesh accessed on January 11, 2015

14  Sainath P. (2001) And then There was the Market, The Seminar http://www.india-seminar.com/2001/497/497%20p.%20sainath.htm

15  Rama Martin; Béteille Tara; Li, Yue, Mitra Pradeep Newman John L 2015) Addressing Inequality in South Asia , World Bank, Washington https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/20395

16  Jain Devaki (2011) Questioning Economic Success Through Lens of Hunger, In Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy: Rebuilding Progress Edited by Devaki Jain and Diane Elson, New Delhi: Sage and IDRC

17  Joshi Sanjay (2004) Colonial Notion of South Asia, South Asian Journal, http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~dludden/Sjoshi04.htm

18  Shiva V. (2012) Making Peace with Earth, New Delhi: Women Unlimited p 140

19  Shiva Vandana and Vaibhav Singh (undated) Health Per Acre: Organic solutions to Hunger and Malnutrition, http://www.navdanya.org/attachments/Health%20Per%20Acre.pdf

20  Shiva Vandana (2013) Tackling Monoculture of the Mind: Billionaires forgo iron-rich crops in push for GM Bananas in India, The Common Dreams dated April 24 http://www.commondreams.org/views/2013/04/24/tackling-monoculture-mind

21  Pakistan Economic Survey (2011-12) Agriculture http://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/chapter_12/02-Agriculture.pdf p21-22

22  Mohan V. (2013) Cultivable land Continue to Shrink, The Times of India, August 16, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Cultivable-land-continues-to-shrink/articleshow/21852689.cms

23  Frederic L Bender (1981) World Hunger, Human Rights and the Right to Revolution, Social Praxis , 8 p. 6

24  Patnaik Utsa (2004) The Republic of Hunger, Public Lecture on the Occasion of 50 th Birthday of Safdar Hashmi Organized by SAHMAT on April 10, New Delhi

25  Shiva Vandana and Vaibhav Singh (undated) Health Per Acre: Organic solutions to Hunger and Malnutrition, http://www.navdanya.org/attachments/Health%20Per%20Acre.pdf

26  Rawls John (1971) The Theory of Justice, US: Belknap

27  Sen Amratya and Jean Dreze (1990) The Political Economy of Hunger, Oxford: Clarendon Press

28  Sen Amratya (1981) Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, Oxford: Clarendon Press

29  http://www.panap.net/campaigns/land-food-rights/international-advocacy-and-instruments/2498

30  Sainath P. (2011) Of Luxury cars and Lowly Tractors, The Hindu, December 27 http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/columns/sainath/article995828.ece

31  Chauhan Chetan (2013) Debts Killed 1.98 lakhs farmers in a Decade: Report, The Hindustan Times September 28 http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/newdelhi/debts-killed-1-98-lakh-farmers-in-a-decade-report/article1-1128276.aspx

32  Centre for Human Rights and Global Justice (2011) Every Thirty Minutes: Farmer Suicides, Human Rights, and the Agrarian Crisis in India, New York: NYU School of Law http://www.chrgj.org/publications/docs/every30min.pdf

33  Sainath P. (2014) Maharastra crosses 60,000 farm suicides July 15 http://psainath.org/maharashtra-crosses-60000-farm-suicides/

34  TISS (2005) Causes of Farmers Suicide in Maharashtra: An Enquiry Final Report Submitted to Mumbai High Court http://www.vnss-mission.gov.in/htmldocs/Farmers_suicide_TISS_report.pdf

35  Pinglay Prachi (2008) No let up in Indian Farm Suicide BBC News May 5 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7383662.stm

36  Right to Food Campaign (2008) Supreme Court Orders on the Right to Food: A Tool for Action, New Delhi http://www.righttofoodindia.org/data/scordersprimeratoolforaction.pdf

37  Dreze Jean (2004) Democracy and Right to Food, The Economic and Political Weekly, April 24 p 1723-31

38  Nigam Shalu (2014) Asserting Rights, Claiming Entitlements: Revolution by Masses, Countercurrents dated December 10 th http://www.countercurrents.org/nigam101214.htm

39  Rautray S (2014) Clarify delay in identifying Right to Food Act beneficiaries: Supreme Court to Centre, The Economic Times November 11, http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-11-11/news/55990468_1_secc-caste-census-food-act

40  Act No. 20 of 2013, received the assent of President on September 10, 2013

41  Jha Ravi S (2013) India Food Security Bill: An inadequate Remedy, The Guardian dated July 15 http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2013/jul/15/india-food-security-bill

42  http://www.kudumbashree.org/?q=home

43  The Kerala Conservation of Paddy Land and Wetland Act 2008 http://keralalawsect.org/acts/Act2008/act28_2008/index.html

44  http://agricoop.nic.in/PPV&FR%20Act,%202001.pdf

45  Ramanna Anitha (2006) Farmer's Rights in India, The FNI Institute http://www.fni.no/doc&pdf/FNI-R0606.pdf

46  The Women's Farmer Entitlement Bill 2011 Bill No. LV of 2011 which grants women the right to land, the right to water to irrigate the land, and other support services could not be passed http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-kerala/bill-for-women-farmers-mooted/article2428443.ece

47  http://swaminomics.org/land-acquisition-bill-will-work-for-industry-farmers-if-leases-are-preferred-over-acquisitions/

48  Shiva op.cit p 198

49  http://www.politicalaffairs.net/bangladesh-victory-of-kansat-peasants-struggle/

50  http://thenextfront.com/?p=1534

51 http://fightback.org.nz/2010/05/06/support-the-struggle-for-democracy-and-social-justice-in-nepal/

52  http://viacampesina.org/en/index.php/actions-and-events-mainmenu-26/1689-the-people-s-caravan-for-seed-and-food-sovereignty-monlar-sri-lanka







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