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The uncertainty of the present physical link of the valley to the outside world shows the urgency of restoring other historical routes to prevent people from getting claustrophobic!

The frequent closure of the National Highway NH-1A linking valley by surface to the outside world during the current winter has almost turned the local population claustrophobic. They feel to have been physically confined in a huge prison. The only access has been through air which too has sometimes got suspended due to bad weather. In earlier times people used to travel in caravans across endless steppes, inhospitable deserts, and High Mountain passes for trade. There used to be long lines of Bactrian camels travelling all across Central and South Asia. The travel was not only adventurous (or rather dangerous) but also very rewarding in terms of the cultural experience. These caravans were sometimes accompanied by explorers and writers who have written dozens of travelogues. These days most of the travel is undertaken by air. However, one does not get the same thrill which is in travelling across the land and the gradual discovery of new lands and people inhabiting these is totally missing. Most of the trade also takes place through cargo flights. Our area is probably the only place where one can still get the thrill of the travel of good old days if we re-open some of the world’s most adventurous and thrilling routes.

Ou-Kong, the famous Chinese Pilgrim who visited Kashmir in the middle of eighth century A.D. in his accounts describes the three most important trade routes of the country. These great routes traversed the high mountains which surround the valley of Kashmir and formed the main lines of communication between the valley and the outside world from the ancient times. The first route leads over the Zoji La pass to Ladakh and thence to Tibet through Demchok. The second route leads through upper Kishenganga valley and from there to Skardu to join the Gilgit route across Khunjrab pass to Central Asia and Chinese Turkistan. The third route follows the river Jehlum along the Baramulla gorge towards the west. This is the easiest route as it does not involve crossing of any high mountain passes.

For last seventy years we have been totally cut off from these ancient routes and have only one channel of communication with the outside world. During its entire history Kashmir has never been so much geographically isolated by human intervention as in these last seven decades or so. It was said that the mountain barriers surrounding the valley have always acted as its guardians against outside onslaught and even Mahmud of Ghazni and Alexandar’s armies were unable to penetrate these natural defences. However, there was no restriction on normal travel and trade. All these routes were fully operational for all types of travel and trade. The peaceful advent of Islam in Kashmir was made possible by the travel of preachers from Iran and Central Asia through these routes. The new Mahayana doctrine of Buddhism formulated by the Fourth Buddhist Council held in Kashmir in the first century A.D. was also spread all over the region by Bhikshus travelling over these very routes. Most of all, the well-marked influence from Iran and Central Asia on the culture and traditions of Kashmir has been possible due to interactions carried over these routes. Kashmir’s famous cuisine owes its origin to Iran and Central Asia. The arts and crafts were introduced by the artisans brought from Samarqand by Zain-ul-Abidin. Samovar, an essential possession of every Kashmiri home travelled along with the trade caravans to this place.

For last seven decades or so we have been exposed to only one type of influence. There has been no choice for direct and continuous interaction except with the rest of the country.  Kashmir has virtually evolved into a controlled enclosure with only one entry/exit. This isolation from our historical neighbours due to closure of all the traditional routes of communication has not only stagnated our normal growth but has adversely affected our psychological wellbeing. Even the “Doctors without Borders” have in their report remarked about the psychological traumas faced by Kashmiris! Apart from huge economic loss which has resulted from disruption of trade along these ancient channels, our cultural, moral, and spiritual growth too has been retarded. Had Kashmir’s interaction with all these neighbouring states continued, the situation may have been quite different. After the exit of the last generation, there may not be any first-hand knowledge of our interactions with the societies of Central Asia, Chinese Turkistan, and Iran. The new generations may read about the stories of travel across these mountain barriers in their history books only and that too if they are given access to such books, which at the present moment is non-existent in most of our educational institutions. There is still time to restore our historical trade and cultural links. One of the most important links namely the Jehlum Valley Road had been partially activated. There was also talk of re-starting  full-fledged trade along this route but that has been limited to a type of barter trade of goods which too gets suspended sometimes. This has been the most frequented route in the entire history of Kashmir. Most of the trade with outside world was through this route till 1947.

For revival of cultural links it is much more important to restore the links to Tibet and Central Asia. This can be achieved by opening the Kargil-Skardu route as well as Leh-Lahasa route. Skardu and Gilgit are now fully connected with Central Asian Republics as well as Chinese Turkistan through the famous Karakoram Highway and there is brisk trade between these countries. In fact, the residents of Northern Areas get permits locally to travel to various neighbouring destinations. Kargil connection can restore our link to Central Asia. Only the Bactrian camels will get replaced by motorised transport. Similarly, Leh-Lahasa link will restore the strong spiritual bond which has existed for centuries. It will also allow access to the holy sites of Kailash Mansarovar by motorised transport. In fact, the re-opening of these routes will give a tremendous boost to surface tourism. Kashmir has the potential of becoming the most important tourism as well as commercial hub for the entire region. If only the routes could be revived fully, the people would have no time for anything except travel and trade. There is no better way to restore Peace than to open up all channels for mingling of travellers, traders, and culture enthusiasts. Most tensions result from artificial barriers. To usher Peace, these barriers have to disappear. The sooner it is done, the better it would be not only for the sub-continent but for the whole South Asian Region and above all for Kashmir itself.

Mohammad Ashraf, I.A.S. (Retired), Former Director General Tourism, Jammu & Kashmir

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