Articles by: Boaventura de Sousa Santos

10 Suggestions for Lula, New President of Brazil

10 Suggestions for Lula, New President of Brazil

Dear President Lula, When I visited you (Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva) in prison on August 30, 2018, in the brief time that the visit lasted, I experienced a whirlwind of ideas and emotions that remain as vivid today as they were then. A short time before, we had been together at the World Social Forum in Salvador da Bahia.[Read More…]

by 29/11/2022 Comments are Disabled World
Ukraine Is a Wake-Up Call for Europe

Ukraine Is a Wake-Up Call for Europe

It is becoming clear that U.S. neoconservatives have succeeded in creating a warmongering, anti-Russian mood in Europe through an unprecedented information war, the consequences of which will take some time to assess. It is, however, possible to identify the signs of what is to come. Losers: We do not yet know who will win this war (or if anyone will win[Read More…]

by 12/08/2022 Comments are Disabled World
The West Is Experiencing a Contraction of Its Power, Not Necessarily Its Decline

The West Is Experiencing a Contraction of Its Power, Not Necessarily Its Decline

What Westerners call the West or Western civilization is a geopolitical space that emerged in the 16th century and expanded continuously until the 20th century. On the eve of World War I, about 90 percent of the globe was Western or Western-dominated: Europe, Russia, the Americas, Africa, Oceania, and much of Asia (with the partial exceptions of Japan and China).[Read More…]

by 16/07/2022 Comments are Disabled World
Why Won’t Europe Call for an End to This War?

Why Won’t Europe Call for an End to This War?

The North Atlantic media is entangled in an unprecedented information war. It is characterized by a relentless erosion of the distinction between facts and the manipulation of emotions and perceptions, between conjectures and unassailable truths. I saw this kind of information war in the United States firsthand during the last years of the war on Vietnam and in the lead-up[Read More…]

by 05/05/2022 Comments are Disabled World