Arab and Jewish Working-Class Solidarity

Palestine Protest 1

It’s hard to imagine a more divisive time in the history of Israelis and Palestinians. I’m writing this as Israeli tanks roll through Gazan hospitals, and refugee camps collapse under bombardment. To many of us, it is reminiscent of living in Nazi Germany with the fascists switched from the Germans to the Israelis. Activists who call for unity of Jewish and Palestinian workers may seem delusional, but there is a history of community cohesion and comradeship among them in different periods of history, including today. There are also many examples of the Israeli and Palestinian governments using nationalism, religion, ethnicity, and repression to break these relationships. This article will review acts of solidarity from the 1920s to 1948 and more recently. These examples can inspire us to build a resilient multiethnic movement that will eventually throw out all capitalist rulers and establish a joint worker run society.

Role of Racism and Nationalism

Racism dehumanizes others to make them easier to exploit, hate, enslave, repress, and kill. It allows the acceptance of grossly oppressive systems, such as slavery and apartheid.

Nationalism drives workers apart by appealing to patriotism, allegiance to the country one lives in. It guarantees that workers support their rulers in times of war instead of fraternizing with other workers, turning their guns around, opposing imperialism, and overthrowing their governments.  The history of the Middle East reflects the rise in nationalism of Arab and Jewish rulers and workers. It induced Arabs to side with Britain during WW1 for a false promise of independence, then to promise Jews a state in Palestine to insure a pro-Western outpost as oil became a dominant interest. Fleeing from European antisemitism, Jews were won to displacing Palestinians and creating an ethnic state, facilitated by indoctrination with severe anti-Arab racism and the promise of safety which never existed as we see today.


The occupation and oppression of millions of Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza have led to anger and rebellions in the Occupied Territories and hostility to Israel by workers of all the surrounding Arab countries. Hamas, the current governing body of Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank, and the Palestinian Authority (PA or Fatah), part of the Palestinian Liberation Organization, use nationalism to reclaim their ownership of the land. Of course, by now, there is little land to claim or share as more West Bank cities fall to settler and IDF violence and demolition, and Gaza is blown to bits.

The societies of Israel, the West Bank, Gaza, and the surrounding Arab countries are all capitalist, with small wealthy ruling groups and a working class without adequate income or services. This is even true of Israel although the general standard of living may be somewhat better. Israel has third highest gap between rich and poor in the world, 21% of Israelis live below the poverty line, and housing and jobs are scant. Nationalism, however, erases the boundaries between the workers and the rulers.  It collapses boundaries between the class of people who work for a living and the class who employs and exploits them for profit. There are more similarities between Arab and Jewish workers than between Jewish workers and Jewish rulers just like there are more similarities between black and white workers than between black workers and Obama. Arab workers have much more in common with Jewish workers than with Hamas or Fatah. Jewish Israeli workers have more in common with Arab workers than Zionists regardless of cultural and religious customs. The ruling classes of both groups are populated by wealthy businesspeople. The Fatah Party of the Palestinian Authority still contracts work with Israel and opposes liberation struggles; Hamas taxes people 60% and owns billions in assets not shared with its constituents. A two state or even a one state solution would still leave capitalists in power unless there were a working-class rebellion. The working class would not have any more power than today.

Recent Jewish, Israeli, and Palestinian Solidarity

Despite polarizing wars, vicious racism, and nationalism, Israeli and Palestinian students and workers have a history of uniting and resisting.

Jewish Israeli and Palestinian Protests and Solidarity

https://www.972mag.com/palestinians-american-jews-protests/

Some Israeli citizens have always protested Israeli government’s abuse of Palestinians, including previous invasions of Gaza and violence on the West Bank.

Right away demonstrations were organized in Haifa, but the protestors were quickly arrested. Recently a few dozen weeks after Israel attacked Gaza, Israeli Jewish citizens organized demonstrations against it, calling for a cease fire and an end to the war. Beginning with several dozen people at the military headquarters in Tel Aviv, it is initiating more public rallies.

https://www.972mag.com/israeli-protest-gaza-war-repression/

This is exceptionally courageous as Israel has criminalized any dissent. It has arrested, detained, and beaten protestors. Many have been jailed for posting anti-war messages on social media sites. University administrators have harassed and fired students and faculty for expressing opposition to genocide.

This movement has great potential as it grows. The government will apply its power to suppress it but will be outnumbered if its inhabitants reject patriotism and fear.

The Israeli Committee Against Home Demolitions (ICAHD), led by Jeff Halper, organizes activists in Israel and other countries to defend Palestinian property slated for destruction. Since the expulsion of Palestinians in 1948, Israel has destroyed 52,000 homes, more than 530 villages, towns, and urban neighborhoods; since 1967, it has demolished another 55,000 homes in the West Bank, East Jerusalem, Gaza, and thousands more in Israel. Families, activists, and community residents rebuilt 200. A well-known video showed Rachel Corrie, an American Jewish activist, standing in front of an Israeli bulldozer ready to crush a house. Tragically, it did not stop.

Israel destroys homes to punish “resistance,” by denying building permits, and in military assaults. Settlers also destroy villages and homes in East Jerusalem and the Negev, on the West Bank in Hebron, Jenin, Nablus, Tulkarem, and many other areas.

The ICAHD uses direct action and international advocacy to safeguard Palestinian property but cannot match the enormous force of the IDF.

https://icahd.org/2020/03/15/end-home-demolitions-an-introduction/

Protecting Olive Orchards and Farms

The olive industry on the West Bank is one of the most important. In 2015, it accounted for the livelihood of 100,000 Palestinian families and 25% of the area’s gross agricultural income. The harvest is a joyous time celebrated by families and farmers. For decades, the IDF and settlers have targeted the trees for removal to impoverish and demoralize the residents. Between 2006 and the summer of 2013, they have killed 10 and injured 1040 Palestinians according to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (https://www.vice.com/en/article/vdxxqb/olive-picking-in-the-west-bank-with-the-israelis-protecting-palestinian-farmers).

International and Israeli volunteers, including Rabbis for Human Rights and To Be There, have deployed multi-generational teams to plant and harvest the trees in defiance of the IDF and settlers.

The residents of Budrus with their Israeli partnerssuccessfully repelled Israeli troops with a 10-month campaign against a wall that would cut through the orchard inside the West Bank. They demonstrated daily with militant confrontations, holding signs saying Jews and Arabs Unite, until Israel pushed back the wall inside the Israeli part of the Green Zone. The film, Budrus (2009), shows the spirit and action of anti-racist men, women, youth, and adults on both sides of the West Bank.

https://tobe-there.com/olive-harvest-in-palestine/

https://www.vice.com/en/article/vdxxqb/olive-picking-in-the-west-bank-with-the-israelis-protecting-palestinian-farmers

Physicians for Human Rights Israel

PHR documents attacks on health in Israeli prisons and war zones through collaborations with medical organizations in Israel and around the world. It recently released a statement calling for the end of Israeli bombings of hospitals and medical personnel (https://phr.org/news/devastating-hospital-strike-shows-urgent-need-to-protect-civilians-and-health-workers-in-gaza-and-israel/).

Organizations in Solidarity

Standing Together

“Standing Together is a grassroots movement mobilizing Jewish and Palestinian citizens of Israel in pursuit of peace, equality, and social and climate justice. While the minority who benefit from the status quo of occupation and economic inequality seek to keep us divided, we know that we — the majority — have far more in common than that which sets us apart. When we stand together, we are strong enough to fundamentally alter the existing socio-political reality. The future that we want — peace and independence for Israelis and Palestinians, full equality for all citizens, and true social, economic, and environmental justice — is possible. Because where there is struggle, there is hope (https://www.standing-together.org/about-us)”.

Women in Black, Israel

Women in Black originated in Israel in 1988 to oppose the occupation. Every Friday, women stand vigil on the street in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv to answer questions, hold discussions, and display signs about Israeli history and Palestinian liberation. Chapters exist around the world (https://womeninblack.org/vigils-arround-the-world/middle-east/israel/).

Givat Haviva

“We strive to create a model society in Israel, emphasizing the importance of a Jewish and Arab shared society. Our vision for a shared society is anchored in principles of mutual respect, trust, pluralism, and intrinsic equality between citizens. We work to promote a prosperous, democratic society for all citizens of Israel, one that strives for peace with its neighbors and for solidarity of all peoples. Our activity focuses on the fields of education, language instruction, culture, and art.

The Jewish-Arab partnership within the organization is the foundation of Givat Haviva’s unique expertise, and a central value underlying our worldview and practice (https://www.givathaviva.org/.)”

Combatants in Peace

“Combatants for Peace (CfP) is a grassroots movement of Palestinians and Israelis, working together to end the occupation and bring sustainable peace, equality, and freedom to our homeland. CfP envisions a just future where the inherent equality and dignity of all are fully realized. Committed to joint nonviolence since our inception, we use civil resistance, education, human rights campaigns, and other creative means of activism to transform systems of oppression and build a democratic and equitable society (https://afcfp.org/).”

Israeli Soldiers

The “Refuseniks” are young people who refused to serve in the Israeli Defense Forces, the IDF. When a reporter asked what army a refusenik would join, he answered, “I would gladly enlist in the Red Army to fight the Nazis.” Today, there are interviews with Israeli youth refusing military service, one saying I don’t want to serve in a racist army (https://www.aa.com.tr/en/middle-east/a-group-of-israeli-youth-refusing-to-serve-in-army-oppose-bombing-of-gaza-occupation-of-palestine/3040670).”

Over the last few years as Israelis demanded Netanyahu’s resignation over judicial policy, and some officers warned that they would not serve. Once Hamas invaded Israel, most united behind Netanyahu returned to their positions, driven by patriotism and willingness to defend all things Israeli. It is unknown how many now are rebelling against the attacks in Gaza and the West Bank. Soldier mutinies are the surest way to end war.

The film, Tantura, presents archival footage of the Nakba and recent interviews with the Israeli soldiers who conducted the 1948 expulsions and killings of over 700,000 Palestinians. Taped and photographed in their homes, these elderly veterans broke the silence and confessed to the atrocities they administered in the town of Tantura.

Video: Tantura IMAGE

https://docs.google.com/document/d/e/2PACX-1vQzS8V0UkBAdiBRbaSasIvKuu45SjEuQKwXMxdMO92DZBn7QNhF2nWbKZI6ALAYoZfFkqpckIt1QMdW/pub

Early Arab Jewish Unity

One can imagine how strong class consciousness must be to overcome the pull of nationalism! There are many instances when Arab and Jewish workers recognized their class similarities by living peacefully together, sharing the same land, joining the same unions, and struggling on the same jobs.

Living Together

During the period of the British Mandate (1920s to 1948), Arab and Jewish residents lived together despite the pull of nationalism from their respective elites. Natural disasters, epidemics, economic problems, unemployment, famines, and common anti-government beliefs fostered a sense of community. Older people who lived then recount many stories of their families living next door to one another until 1948.

The port city of Haifa was a major site of co-habitation. There were equal numbers of Christian, Jewish, and Muslim people, and immigrants from Europe and Syria who settled there. Industries that employed workers with different nationalities instilled class consciousness and promoted friendships. However, to maintain their power, the ruling classes built an apartheid system that prevented cooperation. The Zionist and Palestinian elites appealed to nationalist ideology and created the Jewish Histradut and Arab labor federations, respectively. Some opponents of bi-national organizations even assassinated workers who advocated joint union membership. The Haifa Histradut leader, David Hacohen, addressed Jewish railroad workers during the Mandate:

            “…the mission of Hebrew workers who are part of the movement settling Palestine, is not to be bothered by mutual assistance to Arab workers, but to assist in the fortification of the Zionist project on the land (Pappe, 2006).

These appeals and violence eventually drove workers into separate unions. However, joint strikes continued, especially in the militant and large railway unions.

Joint Labor Organizing and Strikes

During the 1920s, Arab workers began organizing and joining trade unions, especially in the railroad industry where there were large numbers of workers, and frequent contact with Egyptian RR workers and European Jewish immigrants who had experience in labor struggles and in communist and socialist parties.

In 1925, after a long period of denial, the British authorized the Palestine Arab Workers’ Society (PAWS), a major Arab labor organization (Dynamic Movement).

As in the US, communists joined and organized the early trade unions. In 1925, the Palestinian Communist Party (CP) applied to join the Comintern, the international organization of communist parties established by the Soviet Union. The Comintern recognized and accepted the Party in 1923 on the conditions that they recruit more Arab workers and sever ties with Zionist organizations. The CP urged unified strikes and included Arab workers as leaders.

Railway

The railway industry, owned and run by the British at this time, employed large numbers of Arab and Jewish workers. They experienced bad working and living conditions, abuse, and low wages at their hands. In 1920, the employees organized the first union in Palestine to demand an end to such practices. The Jewish-run national labor organization, the Histadrut, opposed joint membership, fearful that Arab workers would take jobs and drag down wages since the government paid them less. The union adopted a policy of Hebrew-only labor; even the socialist Kibbutzim refused to hire Arab workers. The Histadrut also wanted to secure Jewish loyalty and break Jewish class consciousness by fostering separate unions. By 1929, they used force, murder, and appeals to nationalism to push Jewish railway workers into the Histradut; by 1930, Arab workers created their own union.

Yet, this was not the end of Arab and Jewish cooperation. Arab workers appealed to Jewish railway association members:

            “I am striving to establish ties between the Jewish and Arab workers because I am certain that if we are connected, we will help one another, without regard to religion or nationality…”

            “Such separate organizations are dangerous. Let not East and West, Zionism, and Arabism, Torah and Qur’an cause divisions among us. …We must unite and present common demands to the government, which ignores its obligation to the worker, and instead sends in the police and puts him in jail (Comrades and Enemies, 1996, p 105).”

Increasing conflict between Palestinian and Israeli elites developed during the mid-1930s. Yet, Jewish and Arab railway workers sustained their spirit of class consciousness that paved the way for future joint struggles. In 1944, during a joint strike of railroad workers that was predominantly Jewish, Arab workers supplied them with food, warm clothing, and held solidarity demonstrations.

Other Joint Strikes

Drivers and Truckers Strikes

After 1917, transporting people and goods shifted from donkeys to cars, buses, and trucks owned by individuals and companies. The Mandate imposed high taxes and prices for fuel, licenses, and traffic tickets on the drivers. Against initial opposition from the Histadrut and wealthy Palestinian families, the Arab and Jewish drivers united and pressed for reforms, striking together for a week in 1931 that shut down transportation and forced the government to reduce taxes.

The Israeli Histadrut and wealthy Palestinians condemned the joint action of the strikers because it was based on class similarities. The employers and politicians appealed to nationalism and again broke the workers’ unity.

Quarry Workers

The Nesher Quarry, near Haifa, employed Jewish and Arab workers from Egypt and Palestine. Conditions were bad for all but especially for the Arab workforce. Wages differed by 10 fold, working hours were longer for Egyptians, and all were forced to buy from company stores and live in company hovels. In the 1920s, the workers struck. The strike became a very contentious political issue. The Histadrut wanted to enforce its Hebrew-only labor policy which sought to create jobs only for Jewish Palestinians. Again, it did not want to compete with the lower wages of Arab employees, which depressed the wages of Jewish employees.  In the end, nationalism won. Jewish quarry workers tried to guarantee the rights of their co-workers but failed to do so. Egyptian workers were fired and deported to Egypt.

Other Joint Strikes

Joint organizing and strikes occurred in other industries and jobs. Arab and Jewish workers ran the salt plants and conducted strikes and unionizing in bakeries, government and military offices, and the citrus and oil industries. This solidarity was particularly impressive and important during the early and late 1930s when Arab and Jewish Palestinians battled each other over Zionist expansion. Israeli historian Ilan Pappe notes that even during this divisive time, Palestinian Arab workers differentiated Jewish people from Zionism. They “made it clear that the British, not the Jews, should be the primary targets of action.”

In 1944 during another railroad strike, a union leader reported that “There was complete unity and action between the workers of both nationalities…The slogan “long live Arab-Jewish unity was enthusiastically received.” During the late 1940s, just 2-3 years before the United Nations established the state of Israel and the Nakba began, joint strikes erupted among 22,000 postal workers, telegraph workers, and government clerks. Even agricultural workers in the countryside formed joint co-operatives, and urban workers formed joint commercial boards.

Nationalism Wins for Now

By the end of 1948, nationalism won. Israeli soldiers destroyed Palestinian villages and towns, sending 700,000 to refugee camps or their graves. In 1967, Israel occupied Gaza and the West Bank, and after the second rebellion of 200-2004, a wall was built separating Palestinian and Israeli territories. There were fewer opportunities for Israelis and Palestinians to build relationships and struggles against their rulers. With the war and ethnic cleansing in Gaza and the West Bank, one wonders if there will be any Palestinians left to know. (And with climate crises and threats of nuclear war, there may be no one).

Several Take-Aways

What made class consciousness and solidarity possible? The primary explanation is that rank-and-file workers identified as working class, not as Muslim, Jewish, Christian, European, or native-born. They sought each other out as co-workers and neighbors without relying on official governmental organizations, most of whom opposed their unity. This sense of community and comradeship existed in neighborhoods and the workplace. When Jewish immigrants arrived in the 1920s and 30s, Palestinian residents welcomed them. Conflicts developed when the Zionists declared their intent to create a Jewish state at the expense of Palestinians. It was Zionist nationalism that created and required segregation just as US rulers maintain segregated residential and educational environments.  

It was the communists who stressed class consciousness and anti-racism, developed the early unions, and maintained representation of Arab and Jewish workers at all levels, from rank-and-file to leadership positions

Capitalists hate working class co-operation. They push identity politics and racism to keep us apart, use violence, and maintain segregated schools and neighborhoods while stigmatizing, criminalizing, and marginalizing darker skinned and poor people. Palestinian union leaders faced beatings and murders much like black communists organizing in the US South did (Robin D.G. Kelley’s Hammer and Hoe). When the heat of revolt rises, these bosses and their government friends will silence any dissent with violence, anti-communism, and prison. This occurred during the red scares of the 1930s and 1950s in the US and today when anyone expresses support for Palestinians and demands a cease fire in Gaza. Israeli soldiers and settlers on the West Bank ruthlessly fire, detain, imprison, and kill unarmed men, women, and children.

The only good thing about the current horror of racist genocide is that opposition is growing exponentially around the world. The most important lesson that must be learned, however, is that this is not just a local ethnic struggle. Israel is supported by the US and Western Europe because it is the US’ military base in that part of the world from which petroleum products come. Similarly, Iran and China support forces in Gaza, Lebanon, and Yemen. Indeed, this conflict could escalate into a much broader war between superpowers.

People are also learning that liberal democrats like Biden are our worst enemies. While posing as a humanitarian, they fund Israel with $3.8 billion a year. Every US Republican and Democratic Party Senator approved additional funds for Israel. First and foremost, Biden and most politicians, are defenders of US interests around the world, the control of resources, labor, and transportation routes. Thus, no matter how horrible the killing or how much opposition there is, they will not decrease support for Israel UNLESS there is actual fear of mass revolt that involved workers, soldiers, and students.

If we learn that racism and nationalism kill, we may have a chance to overthrow a system that only spreads misery and develop one that works for us. Never have we seen such massive uprisings in so many countries. Never have we seen such diverse militant demonstrators in the US even as repression grows stronger. Atlanta, GA charged activists trying to stop Cop City, a police training facility, with terror charges. Atlanta and other US cities invited the Israeli intelligence agency, the Mossad, to train US cops in urban warfare to suppress revolts. People are beginning to reject politicians and voting as paths to peace and justice. That path can only grow stronger if we build multiracial-ethnic relationships and struggles based on class, not religion or place of birth.

Appendix 1

Very Brief Historical Overview

Zionist immigration to Palestine began in the 1800s and accelerated up to WWII. In 1917 the British promised a Jewish state to the Zionists as they wanted an ally in the region, newly important as oil became the dominant industrial and military fuel. After WWI, the imperialist powers created new countries out of the former Ottoman Empire and gave France Syria and Lebanon and gave Britain Iraq, Palestine, and Jordan. They governed it from post WWI to 1948 when the UN declared Israel a country. The UN disproportionately divided the land into Israeli and Palestinian sections. The Zionists wanted to get rid of all Palestinians (they still do). Israel kicked out Palestinian residents, killing many, displacing over 750,000 (the Nakba or catastrophe), and destroying 500 Palestinian villages. Those who fled became refugees in the West Bank, Gaza, and many other countries.

In 1987, Palestinians rebelled in the 1st Intifada led by the secular socialist oriented Fatah Party, part of the PLO. Israel then transformed an anti-labor Islamic organization into Hamasto counter the PLO and reduce any chances of a two-state solution. Israel continued to seize Palestinian land and homes despite another Intifada from 2000-4. Afterwards a wall was built around the West Bank and Gaza and standards of living plummeted.

Appendix 2

Statements from Academic, Labor, and Membership Organizations 
These are many statements against the war on Gaza from universities, unions, and advocacy groups. These are several.

American Public Health Association

(APHA members hold up a banner supporting a Gaza ceasefire on Tuesday Nov. 14).

On November 14, 2023, the American Public Health Association (APHA) passed a policy condemning the massacres in Gaza and called for a cease fire in contradiction to the tepid press release the organization had released. APHA was the first health organization to do so; the American Medical Association refused to discuss it, claiming it was outside its scope.

In light of the continuing escalating of civilian casualties in Gaza and Israel and the collapse of the healthcare infrastructure in Gaza, APHA calls upon President Biden and Congress to urgently demand an immediate ceasefire and to call for de-escalation of the current conflict by securing the immediate release of hostages and those detained; the restoration of water, fuel, electricity and other basic services; and the passage of adequate humanitarian aid to the Gaza Strip.”

American Library Association’s Social Responsibility Round Table excerpt

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Social Responsibilities Round Table, in accordance with our commitment to peace and humanity, condemns violence and advocates for the U.S. President and Congress to:  

Call for an immediate ceasefire and the release of all hostages held by Hamas. Suspend military aid to the government of Israel until the occupation is ended and the long-term security, well-being and dignity of both Israelis and Palestinians are achieved. Demand the end of Israeli policies depriving Palestinians of food, water, electricity, fuel, medical care and shelter. Condemn the violence between Palestine and Israel and commit to working toward a peaceful solution that recognizes equally the rights of both peoples to thrive in the land of Israel/Palestine.  

Approved by the Social Responsibilities Round Table Action Council, 3 November 2023  

American Archivists and Librarians excerpt  

See the complete statement, endorsers, and references at https://librarianswithpalestine.org/2023-statement-on-gaza/

We insist our governments end military assistance to Israel, diplomatic cover for Israeli contraventions of international law, and all other forms of support for the occupation of Palestinian land.  

We call for the immediate entry of humanitarian aid into Gaza, the cessation of attacks, and a permanent end of the siege.  

We call for a total and complete end to Israeli occupation and for the right of return of all Palestinians to be honored.  

Amalgamated Transit Union 689 (metro Washington, DC)

Resolution on Ending Support for Israel Whereas the United States is sending billions of dollars to Israel to carry out a war against the civilian population of Gaza, Whereas over 100 countries around the world have called for a ceasefire to the bombing of Gaza by Israel, Whereas Palestinians have lived in an apartheid like system for decades, and Gaza is basically an open-air prison, and the only crime of its residents is to have been born Palestinian, Whereas billions of US workers’ tax dollars are being proposed to fund the Israeli war machine, Be it resolved that ATU Local 689 calls for an end to military aid to Israel and for a ceasefire in the war against Palestine.

City University of New York Students for Justice in Palestine

CUNY’s Reevaluation: We demand that CUNY reassess and reconsider its response, which endorses Zionism. We demand that they speak honestly and stop erasing Israeli violence and war crimes. We urge CUNY to recognize the true purpose of the Palestinian resistance as a response to the occupation, and to issue a statement that reflects a more balanced perspective.

CUNY’s Protection of Palestinians: We strongly urge CUNY to uphold its commitment to equal protection and fully adhere to its Title VI obligations, extending these rights to all students, including those of Palestinian, Arab, and Muslim backgrounds, as well as individuals advocating for the Palestinian cause. It is imperative that CUNY takes proactive measures to guarantee the safety and well-being of these students and their supporters, in alignment with its responsibilities under Title VI.

Solidarity Actions: We call upon students and organizations within our schools and beyond to take to the streets in solidarity with the Palestinian resistance against the apartheid state. This includes participating in peaceful protests, rallies, and actions that raise awareness about the Palestinian cause and advocate for justice.

Community Engagement: We encourage anyone in solidarity with the Palestinian people to engage more actively in supporting this cause. Attend events organized by Palestinian organizations and schools, which offer valuable opportunities to learn, engage in dialogue, and demonstrate support.  

Further Readings

See our other blog posts on Israeli-Palestinian issues at https://multiracialunity.org/2023/11/18/our-articles-on-palestine-and-israel/

Lockman Z. Comrades and Enemies: Arab and Jewish Workers in Palestine, 1906-1948. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1996 1996. http://ark.cdlib.org/ ark:/13030/ft6b69p0hf/

Pappe I. A History of Modern Palestine. 2nd Edition, 2006.

Interactive Encyclopedia of Interactive Encyclopedia of the Palestine Question.See Palestinian Trade Unionism, 1920-1948, A Dynamic Movement Ripped Apart by the Nakba, https://www.palquest.org/en/highlight/20695/palestinian-trade-unionism-1920-1948

The Communist.  A History of Middle East Nationalism. A Class Analysis of the Israel-Palestine Conflict. Progressive Labor Party, Fall 2007 (at plp.org, The Communist, complete issues)

Schuhrke J. The AFL-CIO Squashed a Council’s Cease-Fire Resolution. In these Times, November 2m 2023. https://inthesetimes.com/article/afl-cio-israel-palestine-ceasefire-resolution-gaza

Karyn Pomerantz is Co-editor of the multiracialunity.org blog

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