Flawed Investigation into the Delhi Riots

delhi riots

The Forum for Constitutional Rights and Democratic Freedoms (FCRDF) was constituted in August, 2020, after discussion among its Principal Members, comprising both individuals and organizations, all representing different constituencies. All were concerned with the erosion of constitutional rights and democratic freedoms in the last few years and came together on a common platform to stem the tide. The groups represented are a) several Armed Forces Veterans; b) the Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) representing people’s organizations of the poor and disadvantaged; c) the Constitutional Conduct Group (CCG), made up of former civil servants; d)civil society organisations and concerned citizens; e) the Indian Cultural Forum, deeply involved with cultural issues.

This is our first statement on behalf of the FCRDF.

We write to express our full support, in principle, for the statement ‘We will not be silenced’ made by Harsh Mander on September 4, 2020.  We agree with him that the communal riots in Delhi in February 2020 have not been caused by any conspiracy as alleged by the Delhi Police. On the contrary, they have been caused by hate speech and provocative statements made by a number of political leaders of the ruling party.

We stand with Harsh Mander, him, Professor Apoorvanand and their fellow activists. Neither their voices nor ours will be silenced as we speak for truth and freedom.  The ringing words of Harsh Mander’s statement, especially those of the last paragraph, bear repetition and have our endorsement:

“We declare here – and hope those holding highest office in the country hear us loud and clear – that the government will never succeed in silencing us, and will never succeed in taking away from us the dream we inherited from our freedom struggle, the dream of together building a country which is just, and equal, and kind.”

Admiral (retd.) L. Ramdas, former Chief of Naval Staff

Aruna Roy, MazdoorKisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS)

Deb Mukharji, IFS (Retd.), former High Commissioner to Bangladesh, CCG

Dr. Ganesh Devy, civil society organizations and concerned citizens

Githa Hariharan, writer, Indian Cultural Forum


We will not be silenced”

The Delhi Police believes that there was a conspiracy behind the communal violence in Delhi during the third week of February.

We agree.

But the actual conspiracy was a very different one from the one which Delhi Police is propagating.

The truth is that not just the Delhi 2020 carnage; no major episode of communal violence is spontaneous: it is always planned, organized and facilitated.

Such violence requires first the systematic creation of hatred. In Delhi we saw the build-up during the Delhi elections of a climate of hatred spawned by hate speech by senior leaders targeting the protestors against CAA NRC NPR. This was led from the front by the union home minister, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh and several other cabinet and BJP party leaders. The outcome was the spread of unprecedented levels of toxic communal venom, unmatched in any previous election in Delhi.

But beyond the manufacture of hatred and the organization of the violence, the critical factor in any riot conspiracy is the role of the state, and particularly the police. No riot can go on for more than a few hours except if the government wishes for it to do so.

There is massive evidence of the complicit partisan role of the police in the Delhi violence. I have spent a lot of time with the victim survivors of the Delhi carnage. I have heard hundreds of testimonies from them about the role of the police enabling, encouraging and actually indulging in hate violence.

The video of policemen tormenting four young men lying on the ground, among who Faizan subsequently died, is telling. The police while beating the men prone on the ground are taunting them by asking them to sing the national anthem; it was clear that they are punishing them for the protests, in which the national anthem had become an iconic symbol of the protests, of resistance, of unity and of solidarity.

This was the conspiracy behind the Delhi communal violence. It was a bid by the Indian state, aided by the Delhi police, to punish and crush the largest non-violent protests that independent India has seen.

The police story is quite the opposite. According to them, it was the anti-CAA-NRC-NPR protests which were the conspiracy, and that the non-violence of the protests was only a facade.

In pursuit of this story, every day the Special Branch of the Delhi Police, which normally investigates grave crimes like terror, is busy for the past months summoning mostly young people, and sometimes seniors, grilling them, intimidating them, and sometimes – as Umar Khalid has testified – forcing them create false evidence.

Large numbers of young people are today languishing in prison for months without bail in the name of this so-called conspiracy.

We are gathered here today above all in the defence and solidarity with all of these young people.

Yes, they and we did participate in the non-violent movement against CAA NRC NPR, and we are proud to have done so.

During the protests some WhatsApp groups were made. Now every word exchanged in these groups are being examined with a defective microscope by the police, their meaning and context deliberately and mischievously misinterpreted, the truth ripped into shreds and reimagined to create the mythology of a conspiracy of hate, violence and insurrection.

There were significantly other WhatsApp groups that the police themselves admit to, wherein indeed people are actively calling for and organizing the violence on those dates. None of these are being the subject to any investigation of a conspiracy.

Our protests, and those of the young people now in our prisons, were to uphold the Constitution, and the idea of an inclusive and humane country of equal citizenship, which is the proudest legacy of our freedom struggle.

The young people and we protested because we love our country dearly, and we seek to make this country better for all its citizens, of every religion, caste, class and gender, by holding the state accountable to stand by its duties to the constitution.

It is a travesty to describe this as a crime against the nation. Those who are seeking to create divisions and hate among us are those who are committing crimes against our country.

The objective of the government is transparent; to destroy the basic guarantees and freedoms of our constitution.

The effort of the Indian state, facilitated by the Delhi Police, is to crush our voices, our dissent, and our struggles to uphold our constitution.

We declare here – and hope those holding highest office in the country hear us loud and clear – that the government will never succeed in silencing us, and will never succeed in taking away from us the dream we inherited from our freedom struggle, the dream of together building a country which is just, and equal, and kind .

Harsh Mander


Endorsed by:


1 A M Khan, Jt Sec, LIC Retired Employees’ Asso & Sec, Chitra Film Society 202 Manabendra N Roy, IAS (Retd)
2 A Selvaraj, IRS (Retd) 203 Manisha Gupte, Feminist Activist
3 Abha Bhalya 204 Manoranjan Mohanty
4 Abha Sur 205 Marina, Asha Niketan School
5 Abhay 206 Mazher Hussan, COVA
6 Abhay Shirekar 207 Meena Gupta, IAS (Retd)
7 Abhijit Dasgupta, Retired Teacher, Delhi University 208 Melanie P Kumar
8 Abhijit Sengupta, IAS (Retd) 209 Mendonca Edward
9 Abhilash, Secretary, Gram Seva Sangh 210 MG Devasahayam, IAS (Retd)
10 Abinash Dash Choudhury, Jadavpur University 211 Mira Shiva, Public Health Physician
11 Achin Vanaik, Retd Professor, University of Delhi 212 Mohan Rao, former professor at the Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health, JNU
12 Achuthan Palat 213 Mohan Sharma
13 Aditi Mehta, IAS (Retd) 214 Mohan Trivedi, Professor
14 Aditya Nigam 215 Mridula Garg, Writer and Freedom Lover
15 Admiral LRamdas, PVSM, AVSM, VrC, VSM 216 Mrigank, Indian Federation of Trade Unions (IFTU)
16 Admiral Vishnu Bhagwat, PVSM, AVSM 217 MS Chahal, IAS (Retd)
17 Aftab Seth, IFS (Retd) 218 MT Ansari, Professor, University of Hyderabad
18 Ahana Rao, Architect 219 Muralidharan, General Secretary, National Platform for the Rights of the Disabled
19 Air Vice Marshal Kapil Kak, AVSM, VSM 220 MY Rao, IAS (Retd)
20 Ajai Kumar, IFoS(Retd) 221 N P Chekkutty, Senior journalist
21 Ajay Skaria, Historian 222 Najeeb Jang, IAS (Retd)
22 Ajit Singh Yadav, convenor, Lok Morcha 223 Najid Hussain, Scientist
23 AK Samanta, IPS (Retd) 224 Nandita Das
24 Albert Longley Dkhar, Principal, St Anthony’s College, Shillong 225 Nandita Narain, Delhi University
25 Alok Perti, IAS (Retd) 226 Naomi Magh, St Xavier College Jalukie
26 Alok Rai 227 Narendra Sisodia, IAS (Retd)
27 Aloke B Lal, IPS (Retd) 228 Naseeruddin Shah
28 Amanulla Khan, Former President, AIIE Association 229 Natasha Bhadwar
29 Amita Baviskar, Ashoka University 230 Navaroze Contractor, Artists & Film Maker
30 Amita Joseph 231 Navrekha Sharma, IFS (Retd)
31 Amitabh Mathur, IPS (Retd) 232 Nayana Trivedi, Physician
32 Amitabha Pande, IAS (Retd) 233 NC Saxena, IAS (Retd)
33 Amiya Kumar Dev, former vice chancellor of Vidyasagar University 234 Neera Chandoke
34 Anand Archak, President, Insurance Employees’ Union, 235 Nikhil Dey
35 Anand Arni, R&AW (Retd) 236 Niranjan Pant, IA&AS (Retd)
36 Anand Patwardhan, Film Maker 237 Nisha Shiurkar, Writer
37 Anbarasan P, Department of Mass communication, Tezpur University 238 Nitin Desai, IES (Retd)
38 Angana Chatterji, Scholar 239 NK Raghupathy, IAS (Retd)
39 Anil Sadgopal 240 Noor Mohammad, IAS (Retd)
40 Animesh Das, Indian Federation of Trade Unions (IFTU) 241 Noor Zaheer, National Secretary, Indian People’s Theatre Association
41 Anita Agnihotri, IAS (Retd) 242 Nuzhat Kazmi, Professor, JMI and Ahmar Raza, retd Scientist
42 Anjali Kanitkar, Associate Professor ( retd), Founder Trustee-AROEHAN 243 Ordetta Mendoza, Co-ordinator of Programmes, XB
43 Anjali Monteiro, Filmmaker and Academic 244 Padma Venkataraman
44 Anna Dani, IAS (Retd) 245 Pankaj Bisht, Writer
45 Annamma Philip FMM, Secretary General, Xavier Board 246 Parveen Talha, IRS (Retd)
46 Annamma Philip, Xavier Board of Higher Education 247 Paul Mat,hew Teacher of Journalism & Mass Communication
47 Annie Namala 248 PGJ Nampoothiri, IPS (Retd)
48 Anthony Dias, Social Scientist 249 PK Lahiri, IAS (Retd)
49 Anupama Potluri, University of Hyderabad 250 Poile Sengupta
50 Anuradha Kapur 251 Poonam kaushik General Secretary Pragatisheel Mahila Sangathan Delhi
51 Aparna Sen 252 Poornima, Artist and Organic farmer
52 Apoorvanand, Teacher and Writer 253 PR Dasgupta, IAS (Retd)
53 AR Vasavi 254 Prabhu Ghate, IAS (Retd)
54 Arati Chokshi, Retired Scientist & Activist 255 Prabhu Mohapatra, Department of History, University of Delhi,
55 Ardhendu Sen, IAS (Retd) 256 Prabir Purkayastha
56 Arif Ghauri, IRS (Retd) 257 Pradeep K Deb, IAS (Retd)
57 Arun Kumar, Retired Professor JNU 258 Prakash Louis
58 Aruna Roy, IAS (Resigned) 259 Pramod Mujumdar, Co-ordinator, SALOKHA
59 Aruna Sabane, President Maher sanstha 260 Pramod Munghate, RTM Nagpur University
60 Arundhati Dhuru, National Alliance of People’s Movements 261 Pranab S Mukhopadhyay, IAS (Retd)
61 Arup Kumar Sen 262 Pranab Talukdar
62 AS Dulat, IPS (Retd) 263 Prasad Charasala
63 Asha Vombatkere, School Teacher 264 Prasad Tadepalli
64 Ashim Jain 265 Prashant Olalekar
65 Ashok Kumar Sharma, IFoS (Retd) 266 Pravesh Sharma, IAS (Retd)
66 Ashok Kumar Sharma, IFS (Retd) 267 Preeti Sampat, Academic
67 Ashok Vajpeyi, IAS (Retd) 268 Prem Verma, Convenor, Jharkhand Nagrik Prayas
68 Ashraf Ali Basheer Ahàmed, Constituion Protection Group 269 Prerna, concerned citizen
69 Ashraf Ali Bashir Ahamed 270 Priti Turakhia, concerned citizen
70 Atamjit Singh 271 Professor G Haragopal, NLSIU
71 Atreyee Day, concerned citizen 272 PSS Thomas, IAS (Retd)
72 Aurobindo Behera, IAS (Retd) 273 Purendra Prasad, Professor of Sociology, University of Hyderabad
73 Avinash Mohananey, IPS (Retd) 274 Purwa Bharadwaj
74 B N Poojary, General Secretary, LIC Retired Employees Association 275 Purwa Bharadwaj Writer
75 Baghambar Pattanaik, President, Anti-Slavery India 276 Pushpamala N
76 Balaji Narasimhan 277 R Vijay, professor in economics, University of Hyderabad
77 Benny Kuruvilla 278 Rabin Chakraborty, retd Teacher, Calcutta University
78 Bezwada Wilson 279 Rachel Chatterjee, IAS (Retd)
79 Bindu T Desai MD 280 Radhika Chopra, Sociologist
80 Brigadier VHM Prasad 281 Raghunandana Sathamarshana, Kannada poet, playwright, stage-director
81 Brijesh Kumar, IAS (Retd) 282 Rahul Khullar, IAS (Retd)
82 Brinelle D’souza, JSA-MUMBAI, JCoR-West India 283 Rahul Mali, Anubhav Shiksha kendr
83 C Rammanohar Reddy, Editor, The India Forum 284 Rajiv Lochan Sah, Editor Nainital Samachar
84 Captain (IN) RV Singh 285 Rajni Bakshi
85 Captain (IN) S Prabhala, VSM 286 Rajni Palriwala, Professor of Sociology, Delhi School of Economics
86 Cavery Bopaiah, Swaraj India 287 Raju Rajagopal, Hindus for Human Rights (org) USA
87 Chakradhar 288 Raju Sharma, IAS (Retd)
88 Chaman Lal 289 Rama Shanker Singh, Researcher
89 Chandra Krishnappa 290 Ramani Venkatesan, IAS (Retd)
90 Chandrakant Patil 291 Ramesh Kumar, concerned citizen
91 Chandrashekhar Balakrishnan, IAS (Retd) 292 Ramkumar B, Research Investigator, NCBC
92 Chukka Srinivas 293 Ramlal Bhatt
93 Colonel Ali Ahmed 294 Rana Banerji, IAS (Retd)
94 Colonel Ashwin Baindur 295 Rani Day, filmmaker, editor
95 Colonel Dinesh Kumar 296 Ranjeet Kindo SJ, Director, Tribal Research and Training Centre
96 Colonel Pavan Nair, VSM 297 Rashmi Shukla Sharma, IAS (Retd)
97 Colonel R Chidambaram 298 Ratna Pathak Shah
98 Colonel SK Dhar 299 Ravi Budhiraja, IAS (Retd)
99 Commander Sati Taneja 300 Ravi Vira Gupta, IAS (Retd)
100 Daisy Helen, Xavier Board 301 Ravindra Rukmini Pandharinath, Writer
101 Deb Mukharji, IFS (Retd) 302 Raza Mir, Professor of Management, William Paterson University
102 Deep Joshi 303 Rekha Awasthi , Janwadi Lekhak Sangh & Naya Path
103 Deepa Hari, IRS (Resigned) 304 RM Premkumar, IAS (Retd)
104 Deepak Sanan, IAS (Retd) 305 Roby Rajan, The Backwaters Collective
105 Deepika D’Souza 306 Rohan D’Souza, ASAFAS, Kyoto University
106 Delia Antao, Nirmala Institute of Education 307 Rohini Hensman (writer and researcher)
107 Denzil Fernandes, Executive Director, Indian Social Institute 308 Rosamma Thomas, Journalist
108 Dunu Roy 309 RP Shahi
109 DW Karuna, Assistant Professor, Azim Premji University 310 S Durga Bhavani, Professor, University of Hyderabad
110 EAS Sarma 311 S Gopal, concerned citizen
111 EV Ramakrishnan, Author, Academic 312 S Satyabhama, IAS (Retd)
112 Felix Padel, Anthropologist 313 Sagari R Ramdas, Veterinary Scientist, Food Sovereignty Alliance
113 Fr Cedric Prakash SJ, Human Rights activist 314 Sandeep Pandey, Socialist Party (India)
114 G Sankaran, IC&CES (Retd) 315 Sanjeev Kumar, Writer and Associate Professor, Deshbandhu College (DU)
115 Ganesh Visputay, Poet, painter and translator 316 Sannybhai
116 Geeta Kapur, Art Historian 317 Santanu Chacraverti
117 Geetha SK, Insurance Corporation Employees Union, Bangalore 318 Santhanam A, Lawyers Fraternity Tamil Nadu (LFTN)
118 Geetha Thoopal, IRAS (Retd) 319 Satish Deshpande
119 George Karuvelil 320 Satwant Reddy, IAS (Retd)
120 George Pulikuthiyil 321 Satya Sagar, Associate Editor, Countercurrents
121 George Thadathil sdb, Principal & President, AIACHE Salesian College 322 Shabnam Hashmi
122 GG Parikh, President, Yusuf Meherali Centre 323 Shafi Alam, IPS (Retd)
123 Gita Jayaraj, Researcher/Writer 324 Shailesh Gandhi
124 Githa Hariharan 325 Shalmali Guttal, Researcher
125 GN Devy 326 Shanti Maitree
126 Goldie Zaki, St Paul Institute of Professional Studies 327 Sharachchandra Lele, Environmental Reseacher
127 Gopalan Balagopal, IAS (Retd) 328 Sharad Behar, IAS (Retd)
128 Gourisankar Ghosh, IAS (Retd) 329 Shashi Deshpande
129 Gurunagesh 330 Shaunak Phadnis, student, EFLU
130 Gyan Prakash, Princeton University 331 Sheba Chhachhi
131 H Sarwar Usmani, concerned citizen 332 Shekhar Pathak, Historian and Editor PAHAR
132 Harbans Mukhia , Former Professor and Rector, JNU 333 Shiv Shankar Mukherjee, IFS (Retd)
133 Hindal Tyabji, IAS (Retd) 334 Shiva Shankar
134 Hiren Gohain 335 Shivangi Bhasin
135 Hony Lieutenant Sham Lal 336 Shoma A Chatterji, Journalist and Author
136 HS Gujral, IFoS (Retd) 337 Shreekumar, Farmer and activist
137 Humayun Mursal, Executive president, Hindi Hain HumHindostan Hamara 338 Shruti Parthasarathy, Independent Writer and Art Historian
138 Indira Vijaysimha, Poorna Learning Center 339 Siby K George, Philosopher
139 Indranee Dutta, Retired Professor, OKD Institute of Social Change and Development 340 Siddharth Dube, Writer
140 Indu Prakash Singh State Level Shelter Monitoring Committee 341 Siraj Hussain, IAS (Retd)
141 J Suresh, Joint Secretary, SCZIEF (AIIEA) 342 Sonalini Mirchandani, IFS (Resigned)
142 Jacob Kujur 343 Soundravalli Kulandaiswamy
143 Jagannath Dubey, concerned citizen 344 Sowmya Dechamma C C, University of Hyderabad
144 Jagdeep Chhokar, Former Professor and Dean, IIM Ahmedabad 345 SP Ambrose, IAS (Retd)
145 James TJ, Centre for Environmental Studies, Sacred Heart College 346 Squadron Leader SC Das
146 Jasveen Jairath, concerned citizen 347 SR Hiremath
147 Javid Chowdhury, IAS (Retd) 348 Subhash Ware, Convener, Surajy Sena, IRSE (Retd)
148 Jawed Usmani, IAS (Retd) 349 Subhashini Ali
149 Jawhar Sircar, IAS (Retd) 350 Subhasis Bandyopadhyay, Associate Professor, IIEST
150 Jayant Pawar, Playright-Writer 351 Subhendu Dasgupta, Former faculty University of Calcutta
151 Jayati Ghosh, JNU, New Delhi 352 Subodh Lal, IPoS (Resigned)
152 Jerry Pinto 353 Suchetana Banerjee, Asst Prof, Symbiosis School for Liberal Arts
153 Jiten Nandi, Editor, Manthan Samayiki 354 Sudhir Chandra
154 John Ishvaradas Abdallah, Social Justice & Human Rights Activist 355 Sujatha Singh, IFS (Retd)
155 John Mathew, Krea University 356 Sujit Jadhao, Research Scholar, RTMNU
156 Joseph Prabhu, Professor of Philosophy (Emeritus), California State University 357 Sukumar Muralidharan
157 Joseph Puthenpura 358 Sukumar Muralidharan, Journalist and Journalism instructor
158 Joseph Xavier, Director, Indian Social Institute 359 Sundar Burra, IAS (Retd)
159 Josna, Critical Quest 360 Sunil Mitra, IAS (Retd)
160 Julio Ribeiro, IPS (Retd) 361 Suresh K Goel, IFS (Retd)
161 Jyoti Punwani, Freelance journalist 362 Sushil Dubey, IFS (Retd)
162 Jyotirmaya Sharma, Professor 363 Swashpawan Singh
163 K John Koshy, IAS (Retd) 364 Sylvia Karpagam, Public health doctor
164 K Saleem Ali, IPS (Retd) 365 T Ramakrishnan, Sathyamangalam
165 K Satchidanandan 366 T Vijay Kumar, The South Forum
166 K Srilata (Poet and Professor, Chennai) 367 Tadapatla Ratnabai
167 K Sudhir, Architect 368 Tapan Bose Filmmaker
168 K Sujatha Rao, IAS (Retd) 369 Thanksy Thekkekera, IAS (Retd)
169 Kalyani Chaudhuri, IAS (Retd) 370 The Alliance for a Secular and Democratic South Asia
170 Kalyani Menon Sen, Independent researcher 371 Tirlochan Singh, IAS (Retd)
171 Kamal Jaswal, IAS (Retd) 372 TM Krishna
172 Kamalanand Jha 373 Tony Raj
173 Karuna M, Chennai 374 Tushar A Gandhi, Writer & Activist
174 Katyayani Vidmahe , Academic, Prajaswamika Rachayithrula Vedika 375 Uday Gadekar, Gen secy, Insurance Employees Union, Dharwad Employees’ Union
175 Kavery Nambisan, Surgeon and Writer 376 Uma Maheswari Bhrugubanda, Asst Prof, The EFL University
176 Keshav Desiraju, IAS (Retd) 377 Umesh Nazir, Indian People’s Theatre Association
177 Kirity Roy 378 Usha Raman, Department of Communication, University of Hyderabad
178 Kopal, Assistant Professor, AUD 379 V Srinivasan, Chennai Metropol Construction & Unorganised Workers Union
179 KP Fabian, IFS (Retd) 380 Vappala Balachandran, IPS (Retd)
180 KP Jayasankar, Filmmaker and Academic 381 Varghese Theckanath sg
181 KP Sasi 382 Varun Aiyer, Artist, Teacher, Citizen
182 Krishnan UnniP, Novelist and Poet in Malyalam and in English 383 Venkatesh Athreya, Professor of Economics (RETD), Bharathidasan University
183 KS Sidhu, IAS (Retd) 384 Vibha Maurya
184 Kumar Prashant, Gandhian Scholar-Activist 385 Vibha Puri Das
185 Lakshmi Goparaju, Georgetown University 386 Vijaya Latha Reddy, IFS (Retd)
186 Lalit Mathur, IAS (Retd) 387 Vinay Jain
187 Lalita Ramdas, Citizen, Educator, Activist 388 Vinay Lal, Historian
188 Laltu (Harjinder Singh), Hindi poet and writer 389 Vinod Vyasulu, Formerly RBI Chair at the Institute of Social and Economic Change
189 Lok Morcha 390 Virendra Yadav, Hindi literary critic
190 Lourdu Raj SJ 391 Virginius Xaxa, Sociologist
191 M M P Singh , Janwadi lekhak sangh & naya path 392 Vivan Sundaram, Artist
192 M Venissa, Principal, St Agnes College 393 VN Sharma, Retired SAIL Executive
193 M.H. Jawahirullah, Ex-MLA and President, Manithaneya Makkal Katchi 394 VP Raja, IAS (Retd)
194 MA Kalam, Professor of Anthropology, Chennai 395 Wajahat Habibullah, IAS (Retd)
195 Madan Meena, Adivasi Academy 396 Walter Fernandes, Director, North Eastern Social Research Centre
196 Madhu Bhaduri, IFS (Retd) 397 William Sequeira
197 Madhulika Reddy, Researcher 398 Wing Commander CAV Murthy
198 Madhusree Mukerjee, Writer 399 Xavier John Bosco, Andhra Loyola College
199 Madhusudhan, Theatre Activist 400 Yasmeen Lukmani, Professor (Retd), University of Mumbai
200 Mahua Dutta, Writer 401 Yogesh Wanjari
201 Major General SG Vombatkere, VSM 402 Yousuf Saeed, Filmmaker


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