It was a Marathi Book- (Einsteinche Manovishv) – by Dr. Mo. Ra. Gunye, Research Scientist from Bhaba Atomic Research Centre in his Book (513 pages, studded with 18 Chapters a masterpiece of Literature as well), appropriately summarizes Value of Albert Einstein’s contributions in his Book, (Psychological Universe of Einstein- 1997) which prompted me to write Einstein’s Life Journey, though I differ with his Interpretations and I have quoted him as well as used some of his factual details. I am indebted to him.
I have attempted to trace the Life Journey of one of the Greatest Scientist and Human Being which our world has produced. While tracing it we could not resist from identifying it as Tragic. Albert Einstein was widely popular and known during his lifetime and at the same times ‘most hated Scientist in Anti- Semitic Germany as the ‘Upholder’ of Jewish Science’ and for the development of the Theory of Relativity, the Works’ with physics, which changed this world forever. However, Einstein’s political views were of public interest through the middle of the 20th century due to his fame and involvement in political, humanitarian and academic projects around the world.
Einstein was known as a ‘Peace Activist’ and advocated World Federalism and socialism as well, especially in his latter life. His Economic views he detailed in 1949 in Essay Titled ‘Why Socialism”. However his psychic – psychic, mental life became extremely painful particularly from 1914 and after the World War I and with transformation of Anti Semitism into ugliest Nazified Form and ending with World War two. Despite the horrifying turn of events, he kept struggling to keep his Head and Intellectual life as Great Scientist above the gushing horrifying streams of History. Einstein as Scientist and prophetic Intellectual kept on struggling and swimming against Historical currents which pushed the Humanity towards barbarism. He spoke and wrote, frankly but got provoked at times, vacillated between Zionism and Humanism, in the wake of two and half decades of rise of the NAZI movement. Soon reconciled and worked with various civil rights organizations. Einstein became the prominent supporter of both Labor Zionism’ and Jewish-Arab cooperation. His life story, studded with controversies has become Enigma and Mystery and our attempt is to trace his journey through ebbs and spurts. Einstein had to walk on the footsteps of Aristotle and Galileo not only as Physicist and as Scientist but as Independent Intellectual who had to put up Fight against all Mighty Powers of State..
From Gravity to Theory of General Relativity
It will be interesting to provide brief summary of trajectory of Advance in Physics from Gravity to theory of Relativity- the Modern Physics . Aristotle’s (Born in 384 BC-Greece) stated that system heavy bodies are not attracted to the Earth by an external force, but tend toward the centre of the universe because of an inner ‘Gravitas’ or heaviness. Subsequently 11th Century Persian polymath, AL- Biruni proposed that heavenly bodies have mass , weight and gravity, similar to Earth. Galileo’s Principle: all bodies fall with the same acceleration, regardless of its mass and its composition. The motion of anybody depends only on the event and its initial velocity when it was released. He created the science of gravity and devised experimental methods to determine specific gravity and weights of the Objects. Galileo (Born in 1564, Pisa, Italy) developed the Principle of Equivalence- Inertial mass = Gravitational mass meaning that given an event and an initial velocity vector, a particle will travel a definite curve.
Newton’s law of gravitation, states that “Any particle of matter in the universe attracts any other with a force varying directly as the product of the masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them. Einstein improvised it under General Theory of Relativity by explaining that gravity as a distortion of space (or more precisely, space-time) caused by the presence of matter or energy. A massive object generates a gravitational field by warping the geometry of the surrounding space-time.
The Miracle Year 1905-Theory of Relativity, Einstein Leap beyond History
Phillips Lenard, (7 June 1862 – 20 May 1947), the Hungarian-born German Physicist received the Nobel Prize in 1905, for his studies of cathode rays, the “radiation” emitted from hot metals. The rays manifested as a glow that emerged from Cathode, from inside a sealed, evacuated “cathode-ray tube” which made its way to a positively charged plate. The Cathode Rays were, the smallest Particles, the smallest possible Units of Electrical Charge: Electrons. Phillips Lenard defined them as ‘Quanta of electricity’. He discovered that the energy (speed) of the electrons ejected from a cathode depends only on the wavelength, and not the intensity of, the incident light.
What intervened between 1900 & 1905, was Max Planck, the German Physicist’s brilliant formulation of Radiation Law and its outstanding Mathematical Formulations- which explains the spectral-energy distribution of radiation emitted by a Hypothetical –blackbody. It was Max Planck who is credited with discovering Albert Einstein and in 1905 Albert Einstein gave a ground-breaking physical interpretation to Planck’s mathematics when he proposed that electromagnetic radiation itself is granular, consisting of quanta, each with an energy hf. The energy of each photon is E = hf, where h is Planck’s constant and f is the frequency of the Electro Magnetic Radiation.
In same year, September,1905, Albert Einstein discovered and wrote something that changed the World and transformed Human Vision of this Universe, in footsteps of Newton, Galileo and Aristotle in particular. Series of his famous Four Papers, including his introduction to ‘Special Theory of Relativity’ and the famous equation E=mc² the paper which described his particle theory of light, which became one of the important foundations of modern physics.
- The first of these four papers is on the “Photoelectric Effect External”, where electrons are released when light hits a material. Einstein put forth that light consists of “discrete packets” as opposed to the widely accepted wave theory of light. This later advanced the theory of wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics.
- The second paper focuses on “Brownian Motion External”. the erratic random movement of microscopic particles in a fluid as they collide. The phenomena were named after Scottish botanist Robert Brown who studied it first.
- In his third paper of 1905, Einstein argues that the speed of light is fixed and not relative to the observer. “…light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity cwhich is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body,” meaning that light travels at the same speed regardless of whether the source is moving or stationary..
- The fourth paper, on the ‘Mass –Energy’ Equivalent External” which gave us what is arguably the most famous equation in history: E=mc2.This equation showed that the energy of a body at rest equals its mass times the speed of light squared. The speed of light, or c, is 299,792,458 meters/second. That is a huge amount of energy that could be released, which would later be confirmed through the advent of nuclear bombs and reactors. The mass—
- M.R. Gunye, Research Scientist from Bhaba Atomic Research Centre in his Marathi Book, appropriately summarizes Value of Albert Einstein’s contributions in his Book, (Psychological Universe of Einstein- 1997) – Einstein’s short formula (E=mc2.) is the success story of the human mind. The realization of the duality of the direct object-counter object, from the womb of the energy, and the extinction of the duality of the object-counter-object into energy, is the universal conviction of this genius formula. Specific relativity theory showed the homogeneity of matter and energy, while broad relativity theory eliminated the unrealistic separation between space and time.”
These Four Papers changed our conception of reality: of light, of matter, of time, and of space.
March 17, 1905: ·Einstein worked on Quantum theory from 1905 till 1923 to work on the existence of light quanta, or photons. The major milestones since the MIRACLE YEAR 1905
‘GERMAN PHYSICS (Deutsche Physik ) – Phillips Lenard and Stark.
In 1910 Lenard criticized the theory of relativity but it was after 1920 his attacks began to assume explicitly racial content.. He began propagating the notion that there was a Jewish way of doing science, which involved spinning webs of abstraction and the theory lacked any roots in the firm and fertile soil of experimental work. The Jews, he said, “turn debates about objective questions into personal disputes. He claimed that, “This pervasive soul of nature was the wellspring of science itself—and only Aryans, said Lenard, “It was precisely the yearning of Nordic man to investigate a hypothetical interconnectedness in nature which was the origin of natural science.”
In 1920 onwards, Einstein began to experience racially motivated criticism and abuses in the German popular and academic press, Lenard became the backbone of the movement.. At a meeting of the Society of German Scientists and Physicians in ‘Bad Nauheim’ in September 1920, Einstein and Lenard were pitched against each other about Relativity Debate. German nationalism had gripped Lenard to the core of his mental life. Patriotism, National Identity and Unity of Germans became his ‘pride words’ and one nation- One Person’ became his Goal
Once Nazis began hovering over the political scene, Lenard quickly allied himself with Nazis and immediately joined NAZI Party. Along with another Physics Nobel Prize Winner, Johannes Stark he launched core campaign against Einstein’s Relativity as Jewish Physics. Also, Stark the Nobel Prize winner (1919) for his discovery of Doppler effect with boasting Self importance and entitlement formed a firm alliance with Phillips Lenard against Jewish Science working on foundations of Mathematical abstractions by transgressing experimental methodology of Aryan Science!
A shocking Quote from an Article by Paul Weyland, in Daily Newspaper Berliner Tageblatt of September 24, 1920, articulates the “Einstein–Killer from Berlin” during The annual meeting of the “Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte” – the Society of German Natural Scientists and Physicians (Formed in 1822) indicates the intensity of Hatred. Precursor to it was the violent debate about the ‘theory of relativity’ in the physics section of that meeting, and in his account of the discussion between Einstein and his opponent Philipp Lenard. Einstein had received a very high level of Public appreciation since his ‘General theory of relativity had been confirmed by observations made by British astronomers when Eddington photographed a solar eclipse on 29th May 1919. As a reaction to this publicity, he became a target of all kinds of attacks by antisemites and by right-wing publications, in view of Einstein’s liberal and democratic political views and the conservative scientists who were unprepared to accept his physical theories.
‘Deutsche Physik’ claimed that ‘Relativity Theory”, threatened to undermine the very essence of the Germanic world view. It ridiculously claimed that the relativity “sets aside the concept of energy”, the Nazi mathematician Bruno Thüring emphasized that in this aspect one can see “something concerning the soul, world-feeling, attitudes and racial dispositions”. Einstein, he said, “is not the successor of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler (the canonical Nordic–Germanic scientist) and Newton, but their “determined opponent”. Bruno Thuring’ intentended to declare total war against theory which destroys the ‘World View of German man”. The un-confessed collaboration of scientists with National Socialism and Mark Walker’s Book “The Rise and Fall of an “Aryan” Physicist” (1995) provides the historical details. Beginning from mathematical Abstraction methodology the ‘Aryan Scientists’ or ‘Physicists took Shelters into Jewish Tam lung!
Lenard was among the ealiest adherents of National Socialism, and on 29 February 1924. He referred to Adolf Hitler as “True philosopher with a clear mind”. He expressed the hope, Hitler would soon be released from prison and on 15 May 1926 Lenard traveled to a party meeting in Heilbronn, in order to meet Adolf Hitler in person (Encyclopedia.com)
After publishing his Four Volume Physics Text Book Philips Lenard coined the Term ‘‘Deutsche Physik’ and began confronting Einstein openly in Filthy language. The anti-Einstein activism of Johannes Stark, Phillips Lenard and others continued in 1930-31 and over a hundred scientists and philosophers contributed to it. Einstein’s Frieds Laue and Walther Nernst, defended him publicly against such onslaughts but avoided the pricking matter of his Jewishness. When Hitler became Reich chancellor, the Deutsche Physiker felt that their moment had come. In the public Meeting at Berlin Philharmonic, ((which had a capacity of over 1600 people), Weyland aggressive rants were followed by distribution of anti-Semitic pamphlets and ‘swastika lapel pins’. Till 1933 Einstein kept resisting Anti Semitism percolated through Aryan Physics. But after Adolf Hitler’s assumption of Political Dictatorial Powers, and with intensification of Hatred, Eienstein decided to leave Germany and migrated to USA in 1933.
It was great irony that the so called “Jewish Science” came to be recognized as ‘Modern Physics’ and could progress to making of Atomic Bomb, while Nazi Government which adopted Anti-Semitism’ of Lenard & Stark failed miserably to match the Race with Manhattan Project, without Albert Einstein’s direct involvement, destroyed German- Japan alliance forever and inflicted most regressive pains on Human existence. National Socialist Party made him the Chief of Aryan or German Physics. However the hatred against Einstein demonstrated how the NAZI ideology infected ‘Aryan Science’ in the midst of intensified Capitalist Competition for establishing world Hegemony drove the Human race to barbarism. This lesson can never be forgotten.
Albert Einstein, Nazism, anti-Semitism, science and ideology initially, the relationship between Lenard and Einstein seems to have been cordial. An operation for an illness of the lymph nodes around 1907 left Lenard less able to work, and contributed to his difficulties in keeping up with the latest developments in physics. Because he was not mathematically adept, he could not get to grips with relativity or quantum theory. As a result, he decided they were nonsense. The fact that this nonsense—whose premier architect was Einstein—was being accepted and acclaimed by physicists all over the world must therefore be the result of a conspiracy. And conspiracies and cabals were the specialty of Jews
Driven by ‘Anti Semitism’ Einstein wavers and falls victim to ‘Zionism Trap’.
TRACING CONFLICTS IN EIENSTEIN’S MIND FORCING HIM ON ‘ZIONIST’ PATHWilhelm Kaiser resigned as emperor in November 1918 due to defeat of Germany, and the proclamation of the German Republic was made urgently. But soon the social and political situation worsened. The Socialist German Democratic Party had backed the war in Germany. The Spartacus League founded in 1915 by Rose Luxemburg and Carl Leibniz protested against the war, raised the banner of rebellion. But in order to gain supremacy, the power struggle intensified between liberals, fanatical nationalists as well as right and left thinking Parties. Albert Einstein arrived in Zurich while Rose Luxemburg was on the horizon of the raging storm.. At the time, when Rose Luxemburg had taken the position to raise the banner of liberation of the oppressed class, Albert Einstein had become involved in the ‘Jewish question’. The uprising was brutally attacked by Frederick Ebert, who conspired to MURDER Rosa and Karl Liebknecht.
After the defeat of the German Revolution, in 1920, the “right-wing extremist forces” engaged themselves in spreading of waves of violence. The “right-wing” press, slammed all intellectuals, including Albert Einstein, as “traitors and Anti German”. Due to Albert Einstein’s liberal and internationalist stance, and his so called anti-nationalist actions during the war. The extremist nationalist groups that opposed him were influential in Germany, and its influence grew massively in post-war Germany. They en- mass began to align themselves with Hitler’s NAZI Party.
Einstein favored to promote Democracy’ as against the collapsed ‘Military Rule’. Many people hoped from this Internationalist, Peace promoting Scientist, who had risen to the Pinnacle of the Popularity.. However the fanatical, extremist groups, riding on the Anti Jewish, Anti Semitic waves and opposed to Einstein and his Jewish Origins began ruthlessly targeting him. They termed him as ‘Hissing Snake’ who has entered the Snake burrow to take advantage of comforts in Berlin Germany. Albert Einstein who did not sign the ‘Manifesto of Ninety three- 1914”, initiated and propagated by a sizable group of German artists and intellectuals to justify Germany’s militarism and Declaration of support to Germany’s World War I’ came under sever fire. Einstein instead rebutted and signed the counter- ‘Manifesto to the Europeans″ as answer to it, harping on Europe’s common culture and preventing war calamities. It is said that ‘its essence, reflected in its language, quotes and proclamations and the earnestness’ clearly indicates that it must have been ‘penned by Albert Einstein’. Very few excluding Einstein, Nicolai and two others dared to sign it.
The patriotic groups soon termed Einstein and Jews as responsible for Germany’s defeat. Study Circle’ was formed from within the German Scientists and Intellectuals to ensure huge flow of finances to it and with the intention to spew fire against him and promote several Anti Einstein Rallies, to target his ‘Jewish Relativity Theory”.”‘Berlin’s Philharmonic Hall. had hosted a uncontrollably exuberant rally at which Einstein had been denounced as a fraud and scientific philistine”. (By Paul Weyland- the Rubble rouser) . The rallies, several of its kind, promoted and based on solid Financial support, held in 1920 were focused to paint Einstein and Relativity theory as promotion of ‘JEWISH RELIGION’. The vicious propaganda made rapid intrusion into his ‘psyche’ and created dents and disturbances. Einstein criticized and condemned the ‘Study Circle’ and the participant speakers ruthlessly. He criticized Phillips Lenard in the such language that showed that Einstein was severely injured and mentally disturbed beyond limits. PERVADED.
From below the surface of socio-political psyche of the middle classes emerged the roaring hatred. Its super-hot Hatred-Lava broke through the surface and sprang up with unimaginable force. In Freudian terms we would identify it as ‘Return of the Repressed”. On June 24, 1922, the German-Jewish statesman Walther Rathenau (Industrialist and Liberal Politician) was brutally gunned down on 24th June 1922, on the streets of Berlin by a group of far-right nationalist. It was clear that the this massacre would not stop right-wing extremists. Their intention now, as openly stated, and there was talk all over Berlin that the nationalists’ next focus was on ‘Albert Einstein’. Einstein lived in Berlin for the last eight years. He had never lived so long in any other country since his student days. The events strengthened his thoughts of leaving Germany and preoccupied his mind.
Albert Einstein says” When I came to Berlin in 1914, I first discovered my ‘Jewishness’. I am indebted, not to Jews but to the noble Germans for this discovery. When I started noticing the level of dirty accusations being leveled against ‘Noble Germans’ every day and Night, I was deeply wounded and bloodied by the destructive actions of these powerful groups against the minority JEWS! Through the Educational Institutes, News papers and everywhere and elsewhere the majority of German Population was fiercely insulting the minority Jews and I realized that there was no point in continuing my stay in Germany”. Jews till one generation ago felt that they were fully blended with German population, though their religion was different. Albert Einstein, during his schooling days in Munich never discovered his Jewishness! He had forgotten it also.
But by 1921 he began to identify even more strongly with his Jewish heritage, and he embraced the Zionist goal of promoting a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Clever Zionist leader Kurt Blumenfeld who established contact with Einstein in 1919, slowly began infiltration in his mind. Einstein who was against need for ‘Jewish State’ in due course confessed to Blumenfield, that, “I am, as a human being, an opponent of nationalism,” “But as a Jew, I am from today onwards a supporter of the Zionist effort.” Blumenfield served as secretary of the ‘Zionist Federation of Germany’,from 1909 to 1911 and served as the ‘President of the organization from 1924 to 1933. He fled the rising tide of anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany to Palestine. He was chiefly responsible for awakening Einstein’s ‘Jewish Identity.
Einstein was moved by the general misery of the Jews and the tyrannical atrocities on the helpless brethren, in various European countries and further emotionally got entangled into Zionist Web. His pacifist, and international outlook suffered jolts as aggravated by gushing out of the Hatred from the collective psyche of the ‘Super Patriot’, ‘Aryan nationalists’, against him. Even the Ten Nobel Prize Winners1 & the most influential figures in the history of quantum mechanics, like Niels Bohr, Louis Broglie, Max Born, were Persecuted being JEWS, by Labeling them as Upholders of abstract mathematical approaches—above all, Relativity and Quantum theories as against Aryan Science. With Experimental Approach.
Einstein’s role was unquestionable. He has explained his thoughts in detail. He studied the history of ‘JEWS’, staying in Germany for the last hundred years. These helpless poor citizens living in slums were deprived of all social and political rights. Many restrictions were imposed on them. They were isolated from the mainstream of rapidly advancing European culture. But over the last few years, the picture had changed. Some people got the benefit of it and forgot about the plight of their brothers, they forgot about the culture. While expressing his empathy for those poor Jews, at the same time Einstein disapproved of all forms of sectarianism while preserving his zeal. He refused to pay any dues to the sect.
On May 14, 1948, Israel was officially declared a nation. The next day, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Syria, Iran and Iraq launched a massive attack on Israel. The war ended in July 1949 with the defeat of the Arab nations. Although Einstein’s “Jewish” identity was not deeply rooted, it was awakened by the enormous anti-Semitism in Berlin. He was a staunch supporter of the creation of “Israel” because of his firm belief that it was a fundamental requirement for a Jews. He used to refer to ‘Jews’ as my people. With Birth of Israel He was asked to accept the “presidency” of Israel. He was overwhelmed by this request. However, he politely declined the invitation, realizing that he did not have the mental inclination to pursue such a prestigious position and that he did not have the necessary experience.
Einstein rejected it by saying, “I am literally overwhelmed by this honor, but I am just as embarrassed and embarrassed by not being able to accept it.
Rosa Luxemburg, Leon Trotsky & Paul Levy confront their Jewish Past
On Jewish question it will be significant to review how Greatest Jews AND Albert Einstein’s contemporizes viewed the Jewish Question. I have considered Historic roles of two Marxists, Rosa Luxemburg and Leon Trotsky, both shared at least partially Historic circumstances after WWI defeat of Germany.
Rosa though proud of her Jewishness, she stayed away from Jewish politics of her time. On debate on Polish nationalism, she refused to get bogged down into of her identity. Rosa understood the world, through the eyes of the oppressed. When sent a book about Spinoza to prison in 1917 by her friend Mathilde Wurm, Rosa wrote: “what do you want with this theme of the ‘special suffering of the Jews’? I am just as much concerned with the poor victims on the rubber plantations of Putumayo, the black people in Africa with whose corpses the Europeans play catch… I have no special place in my heart for the [Jewish] ghetto”. It is well known that she did not spare and launched severe criticism against Eduard Bernstein, who had Jewish origins and who began advocating revisions of Marxist Materialism.
Rosa was a talented letter writer, much in the tradition of the great Jewish intellectual Rahel Varnhagen and she stuck to the causes she believed in. She was a woman ahead of her time. Luxemburg was also a pioneer of human rights; she wrote against the death penalty, for rights of prisoners, by drawing from her own experiences and other struggles. She was at the Helm of the great Spartacus Rebellion , leading the working masses, as leader of Council Republic’ identical to what was established by Bolsheviks in Russia.
After Hitler’s rise to power his assault on Luxemburg’s memory commenced. In 1933 the Nazis removed the red star from the grave of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. Rosa’s beloved right hand, who was responsible for the preservation and publication of much of Rosa’s work, was taken away on 27 July 1942 and deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp, where she died on 14 April 1943. She suffered for her Jewishness.( Dana Naomy Mills).
It is known that Jews en-mass participated in Russian Revolutions of 1905 and 1917 also. Leon Trotsky, born to Jewish understood Yiddish language but never perused. He kept a close eye on Russian affairs, and wrote bitterly about the 1913 FAMOUS AND MOST UGLY Beilis trial, (13-year-old Ukrainian boy Andrei Yushchinsky who disappeared on his way to school. Eight days later his mutilated body was discovered in a cave near the Zaitsev brick factory ) when the Jewish factory owner, Mendel Beilis, was put on trial under false charges that he ritually murdered a Christian child around the time of Passover. Trotsky argued that the case proved that tsarist Russia was intrinsically anti-Semitic, and the only solution to anti-Semitism in Russia was to overthrow the regime.
In 1905 and 1917 there was significant participation of Jewish working Population in both the Revolutions but Trotsky did not speak about it, by fully participating and committing himself to lead rebellion of the oppressed Working Classes.
With the outbreak of World War one, Leon Trotsky moved to Zurich in 1914 and then to Germany, where he was briefly imprisoned for opposing the war, which socialists understood as a conflict between imperial capitalist forces by unnecessarily fought by the working classes of each nation. After the Bolshevik Revolution he knew from the past, existence of Anti Semitism, he joined the Bolshevik Government but to avoid unnecessary criticism being Jew and put up the most revolutionary program as Chairman of the ‘Petrograd Soviet’ and played a key role in the October Revolution of November 1917 which overthrew the Provisional Government, pulled out Soviet Union’ from World War one and created History. Even when anti-Jewish pogroms broke out throughout Ukraine, Jacob Maze, asked Trotsky personally for extra security to protect Russian Jews from these pogroms, Trotsky answered that he was a Bolshevik and did not consider himself a Jew.
During his exile, with the rise of Nazism and State Sponsored Anti- Semitism, Trotsky responded vehemently on Jewish issues. In several of interviews, he reaffirmed both his opposition to Zionism and his support for Jewish workers making common cause with workers of the countries in which they live. His biographer, Isaac Deutscher, coined the phrase “non-Jewish Jew” to describe Trotsky and his generation of Universalist thinkers.
Both these Revolutionary Marxists who spent and encountered Anti Jewish, Anti Semitism, – Aryan or Nordic Phantasies and Primal —–through their inner ‘self search’ could transcend all pre- historic past, and stood up for liberation of Humankind.
It is interesting to note that Albert Einstein who had great appreciated and described Paul Levi, the leader of the KPD who built the KPD after the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht and successfully built up a party of a third of a million members, remained a revolutionary socialist till his death in 1930, as ` ‘He was one of the most upright, wittiest and bravest people whom I have encountered on my journey through life… One of those who act naturally from the inner compulsion of an insatiable necessity for justice.’It is also noteworthy that Paul Levi had provided introduction to Leon Trotsky’s “ Lessons of October” in 1924. Because of his Jewish background he also became the Target of most hateful Anti Semitic Campaign in the Right wing Press . He sharply responded by attacking the leading prominent Nazis, Adolf Hitler, Earnest Roehm (Leader of the Storm Troopers), Alfred Rosenberg (Nazi Editor of “Völkischer Beobachter’, and the notorious Wilhelm Frick , Minister of Interiors in all Left wing Publications.
Max Planck and Albert Einstein- Great Friendship.
Dr. M.R. Gunye- “Einstein’s Psychic World” highlights greatness of Max Planck and his organic friendship with Albert Einstein. In this tumult of the Nazis, it was not easy to stand behind Albert Einstein, and that courage was shown by Max Planck AT HIS AGE OF Eighty Six. He said “Albert Einstein is such an extraordinary scientist that his profound research has given science a solid foundation and a deep and holistic meaning. Only talented scientists like Kepler and Isaac Newton have given such a profound meaning to science in the past.” He has often spoken respectfully about Einstein in his life, uttering such blunt remarks in the presence of the enraged and furious real Adolf Hitler.
And Adolf Hitler stared at Planck and said, “Remember, I’m not putting you in a painful concentration cage, given your such an old age.” He, this truth-seeking old ascetic did not waver in front of him, and dared to face the most powerful Dictator of Germany. Hitler further retaliated by saying “the Jews are all Communists, and these are my enemies. ”
One of the most horrific events, faced an ordeal at close to end of life. Of his children, Irwin Planck was the only one and he was sentenced to death for plotting to assassinate Hitler. Planck was cunningly placed option before him. A written statement of allegiance to Hitler. Planck did not accept this option and Erwin, Planck was implicated in a conspiracy to assassinate Hitler in 1944 and executed in 1945 Planck’s son Erwin Planck was implicated in a conspiracy to assassinate Hitler in 1944 and executed in 1945 .Not only was a great scientist but also as a truthful great man, Max Planck made his mark on history
Albert Einstein’s Lifelong Protracted struggle to rise above Judaism and Zionism
Spinoza-Albert Einstein’s Conscience Keeper and Bertrand Russel
To recapture making of Albert Einstein no one can ignore Role of Philosopher Spinoza. During his tenure as a Professional Teacher, Moris Solvin, Romanium Philiosophy student got himself introduced to Albert Einstein by way of his tuitions in Mathrmatics and Science. He beame his Lifelong friend. During their mutual discussions and debates Solvi was impressed by Albert’s striking approach to Scientific problems. Moris, Albert and his friends used to go out for long walks near natural parks. Topics of discussions were Spinoza, Hume, Kant, Galileo, Newton , Maxwell, philosophy, literature, Music. Albert’s deep sympathy for creation of Jewish state, he felt, were not in conflict with his Internationalist perspectives. He of course never sympathized with sectarian Jewish leaders. Soon Spinoza’s philosophy gained deep roots into Albert’s psyche and his personality. Like the rebellious Spinoza, Albert’s God was pantheism . He used to believe that he has discovered the Universal- cosmic Nature of God through Self Analysis. Like Giordano Bruno, the Italian philosopher of 16th Century Albert conceived God as The Universal Soul, Universal Intellect and Universal Matter
Like Spinoza he studied Greek Philosophy He deeply believed in Spinoza, the philosopher, excommunicated and expelled from Jewish Community by Portuguese –Jewish Community in Amsterdam.
Albert Einstein was committed to ‘World Peace ‘still indirectly supported President Roosevelt for creation of Nuclear Weapons. Commenting on this criticism he says,” This act was outwardly contradictory but was born out of helplessness to prevent Adolf Hitler’s demonic, monstrous Act and when ‘Peace Chanting’ would have been slovenly, groveling Act”.. He justified his decision to support as ‘Brick is softer than Stone”. It is difficult to state whether Spinoza who did not fear is decatigation from Jewish community would have supported it. His assumption of providing safety for USA as against Germany, he accepted as his mistake. He says, “NAZI’s possibility to create nuclear weapons and bringing it to Roosevelt’s notice was my greatest mistake but underlying intension was to ensure that NAZIS do not take possession of NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY.”.
How to preserve Human Civilization and its Culture (Read why war- Freud Correspondence) from these destructive weapons was his anxiety which was also the driving force to support Bertrand Russell’s (Who was imprisoned for openly criticizing British involvement with WWI in 1918) most aggressive ‘World’s Peace Initiatives. Albert Einstein’s appreciation of Bertrand Russell the Nobel Prize for Literature winner prompted him to join hands with him and Draft – Russell–Einstein Manifesto in 1955 to highlight dangers of Nuclear Weapons and participate in 1957 conference. Albert Einstein’s vacillations on the question of active promotion for a Jewish State and Supporting Roosevelt only highlight the deep stirring Dilemma Albert Einstein was caught into.
Einstein struggles to discover Psychoanalytic solution to ‘Why War”?
Einstein was seeking for answers to questions lurking into his mind, springing upwards like vortex and which had made him uncomfortable and wavering. His letter to Sigmund Freud, dated, 30 July, 1932, “Why War?’ attempts to seek answers to questions tormenting his ‘Psyche’. The central theme was advancement of modern Science, in which he is the Protagonist and leading light and against his sufferings from Anti-Semitic Nazi aggression and his own regression towards or into Zionist Past! He is seeking answers from Sigmund Freud about the answers for ‘Resolution’ of problems not only threatening the Human world but essentially to his inner conflicts which he articulates in the Letter..” This addresses to the fundamental Question, “enable you to bring the light of your far-reaching knowledge of man’s ‘instinctive life’ to bear upon the problem…” Albert Einstein understood the significance of Psychoanalysis as a means to conquer his own inner struggle and need to counter the explosion of mass psychosis and mass hysteria.
Einstein says, “As an individual with no ‘Nationalistic Bias” he proposes, “Setting up, by international consent, of a legislative and judicial body to settle every conflict arising between nations” or to create a “supranational organization competent to render verdicts of incontestable authority and enforce absolute submission to the execution of its verdicts”. However in view of failure of all efforts over a decade, Einstein concludes that “Strong psychological factors are at work, which paralyzes these efforts. Some of these factors are not far to seek. The craving for power which characterizes the governing class in every nation is hostile to any limitation of the national sovereignty”.
Einstein make a fervent I am well aware that the aggressive instinct operates under other forms and in other circumstances. for instance, due in earlier days to religious zeal, but nowadays to social factors; or, again, the persecution of racial minorities). But my insistence on what is the most typical, most cruel and extravagant form of conflict between man and man was deliberate, for here we have the best occasion of discovering ways and means to render all armed conflicts impossible.
Einstein poses to Freud a correct question,” How is it these devices succeed so well in rousing men to such wild enthusiasm, even to sacrifice their lives? And Einstein himself answers it. “Only one answer is possible. Because man has within him a lust for hatred and destruction. In normal times this passion exists in a latent state, it emerges only in unusual circumstances; but it is a comparatively easy task to call it into play and raise it to the power of a collective psychosis. Here lies, perhaps, the crux of all the complex of factors we are considering, an enigma that only the expert in the lore of human instincts can resolve”. What is creditable for Einstein was he could grasp the essence of escalation of ‘Mass Psychosis’ or mass hysteria’, the rapid spread of symptomatic illness arising from ‘instinctual repression’, which affected the masses and groups sharply after 1920 leading to propping up of Nazi Leader”.
Einstein struggled to contemplate and advocated a global solution to war long before the start of World War II. With “the advance of modern science, this issue has come to mean a matter of life and death for Civilization as we know it”. He proposes ‘World Government” as solution. Freud is skeptical about Einstein’s Contemplation of ‘World Government”. He opinions that “there is no likelihood of our being able to suppress humanity’s aggressive tendencies”. We discover in letters Einstein wrote to Sigmund Freud, in 1932 “Is it possible to control man’s mental evolution so as to make him proof against the psychoses of hate and destructiveness? Here I am thinking by no means only of the so-called uncultured masses. Experience proves that it is rather the so-called “Intelligentzia” that is most apt to yield to these disastrous collective suggestions,“.
Neither Albert Einstein nor Sigmund Freud had an answer. They witnessed the Bloodless Revolutions, the Great Russian Revolution and Rosa Luxemburg led Revolutions showed the Rays of hope of Human emancipation in a historical junctions. Sigmund Freud saw the Trotskist period till1927 as something favorable until the Revolutionary Bolshevism was still dominant But the Stalin’s intellectual purge sealed his hopes. If Psychoanalysis. .
SIGMUND FREUD, EINSTEIN AND RISE OF SACRED TOTEM
Defeat in WW1 and Treaty of Versailles’ bloodied the Ultra Nationalistic Pride and provoked with force the deep rooted ‘pre historic’ psychic objects of instinctual desires, flourishing and manifesting in ‘substitute forms” of Pre-historic Totem and rapidly took the Form of Barbaric NAZI Rule by 1932-33. The Book- Totem & Taboo” with its Anthropological, Sociological and Psychological moorings compares the Mental Lives of Savages & Neurotics’. The comparison fully justifies Nazism’s glorification of Barbaric Prehistory. In the course of history the resurgence of Religious, fanatic Hoards and the ‘absolute subordination of the individual to a communal identity”, as Nazis used to put it as “Volk” fully characterizes the NAZI formation. Mark Edmondson remarks that “In books like “Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego” and “Totem and Taboo,” Freud predicted Hitler and his descendants almost perfectly”. The Nazis were preoccupied by the mythic origins, traceable through common cultural practices of an “Aryan” race and history of civilization. The mythical memory of the ‘Aryan Totem’, the spirit , sacred object, and symbol, like ‘Swastika’, serving as an emblem of a group of collective ‘Unconscious’, encompassing people, families clan, lineage, or tribe began to sprout and escalate with massive force against the ‘Other’, the identifiable enemy the ‘Jews’. On the other hand Versailles’ treaty facilitated deep desire for Unification’ of ‘Old Germany’.
The demonstrated manifestation and articulations of perversions were comparable to ‘Social Neurosis’ and regression to primitive or primal Phases, ‘Psychosis’. Trajectory of gamut of its spread was synchronized with intensified Capitalist recessionary Crisis which attained its peak from 1929 till 1932. Obsessive Actions directed against Jews and regeneration of Religious Practices and faith” (1907) can be likened with Neurotic obsession.
Incidentally, Nazis were well rooted into totem in the wolf. It is known that Hitler’s code or niche name was “little wolf,” and he used to refer himself as a “wolf.” Many institutions in Nazi Germany, especially those of the military, Significantly, ransacking of Trade Union Movement, fully backed by Monopoly Large capital, Holocaust, extermination of JEWS, Concentration Camps, waging war for unification of ‘Germanic Population’ of entire Europe’, Book Burning, constitution of ‘NORDIC SCIENCE” unfolding of these Historical Phases clearly spell out what NAZIS intended. Since 1932, they intended to restructure the System’ and class- relationships of the society to an appreciable extent on what they saw as the model of a TOTEMIC Rule.
The organized ‘Killing Squads’ on the 14th Century Medieval Model directed against Trade unions and Jews, the Anti nationals after 1918 erupted soon. The First major killing of such kind reported was of the Catholic politician Matthias Erzberger, who had negotiated the Armistice and had signed the Versailles Treaty, and was gunned down in August 1921. It was followed by killing of ‘Walther Rathenau’, the German-Jewish industrialist and statesman who as Foreign Minister had negotiated the Rapallo Pact with Soviet Russia. ‘Walther Rathenau’ was friendly with Albert Einstein and NAZI methods of terror and intimidation began haunting Albert Einstein after Walther Rathenau’s murder as being the next target. Considering Albert Einstein’s history, his Internationalist Perspectives, , his opposition and Declaration in 1914 and instead making primary contribution in drafting the ‘Manifesto to the Europeans’ made him the easy Target of the Neurotic ‘Killing Squads’ gripped by ‘Aryan Totemic’ hatred. Latter stage, philosopher Theodor Lessing was murdered by a Vehme squad in August 1933, and Albert Einstein was also reportedly a primary figure on their blacklists since 1921.
Tragic turn in life of Eduard Einstein & Tryst with Psychoanalysis!
If we delve into Albert Einstein’s personal life we are faced with so many twists and turns with his fortunes. Albert Einstein’s drove him into realms of Psychoanalysis and to establish intimate relationship with Psychoanalysis in 1920’s. It was heart breaking event in the life of his son. It was in the beginning of his Educational life, Albert Einstein 17 Years old and his First wife Mileva Marić, a 20-year-old Serbian; got engaged. Both studied physics, taking some of the same courses and, in many of those, getting comparable course results. They studied together, fell in love and married. His first wife, Mileva Einstein-Maric, accompanied him and supported Einstein intellectually and emotionally throughout the difficult early years of his rise from his days as physics student in 1896 to the top of his profession by 1914. She was Serbian and was physicist and mathematician. Albert Einstein had three children. His oldest son was Hans Albert Einstein, born in 1904 and second son, Eduard Einstein, born in 1910. Hans Albert Einstein (May 14, 1904 – July 26, 1973) was a Swiss-American engineer and educator, the second child Eduard Einstein of Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić was a brilliant student. Albert Einstein fondly nicknamed his second son as ‘TETE” as analogous to the French word “petit.”
Mileva was critical of Albert who she felt has ‘Science’ as his priority and not family life. Particularly after their separation in 1919, the sons stayed with her. Nevertheless Albert was highly worried about his sons. He had some glimpses into psychic life of younger son Eduard who he feared may land into psychical issues and victim of psychic disease. . Eduard was highly talented and was considered as best student in school. He was a gifted Artist and made Music and Poetry as his pursuits. From Zurich University he studied medicines, in footsteps his mother to become Psychiatrist. But by the age of twenty one he was diagnosed with Schizophrenia!
In 1934 Albert Einstein had become NAZI’s target and he visited ZURICH to see MILEVA and EDUWARD (TETE). After return, he sent letter even in such an emergency, “stressing the need for ‘TeTe’ to be constantly engaged in work rather than external treatment. ‘Satan’ takes possession of an empty mind, therefore, he had strongly suggested that an intelligent child like ‘Te Te’ should write a thought-provoking and well researched essay to shed light on Sigmund Freud’s concepts. In this research project, he said that ‘Te Te’ would be immersed in his favorite subject and that even Te Te’s unfaithful father, who had a message about Freud’s concepts later in his dissertation, would be happy to find some ‘Truth’ in it”.(Dr. M.R. Gunye- “Einstein’s Psychic World”) At the age of 20, Eduard when diagnosed with symptoms of schizophrenia, he fell in love with an older woman which ultimately resulted into disaster and attempt to commit suicide despite Father’s advises to root himself into Psychoanalytic studies. Albert Einstein, compassionately wrote to him, that rooting oneself into work is the only way out to get out from distraction. “Life is like bicycle, it stands till it runs, else it collapses”. Erotic Perversion finally took his possession. Albert Einstein expressed his guilt and regrets with his utterances about Edward, ” The more refined of my sons, the one I considered really of my own nature, was seized by an incurable mental illness.” Mileva desperately pleaded with Swiss Psychoanalyst Carl Jung in 1936 but in vain. Eduard finally lost his life with same illness in 1965.
Albert Einstein’s appraisal of Edward’s writings and Articles on Sigmund Freud and his ‘Oedipus Complex’ moves from skepticism to appreciation. After meeting Freud in 1827 Einstein began studying Freud’s works and began admiring Freud’s concept and theory of ‘Repression” In his letter to his son Eduard, Einstein admits that he now believes Freud “was onto something, at least in regards to the main theses.”
Review of Albert Einstein role in Manhattan Project and Hiroshima- Nagasaki Bombing.
In the History of Scientific thought the Year 1905 turned out to be an Year, WHICH ANOUNCED Dawn of escalations of influence of Science of Physics and at the same time which sown seeds of massive, unheard Political and malicious Controversy between Philipp Lenard and Albert Einstein. No one knew how impactful the Year was in life of Germany. Controversies inherent in ‘Science of Physics’ carried within its womb Lamentation of Socio- Political Turmoil, leading both into heart of mainstreams surge of NAZISM and most destructive Hiroshima Bombing – World War two. Both these most destructive and painful historical milestones has Albert Einstein as Major witness and participant from International Scientific community.
It was Historic irony that Nazis’ labeled and condemned modern physics as “Jewish science”, even in reality it was exactly modern physics—and the work of many European exiles including Leo Szilard who fled in 1932, who became the victim of German Anti-Semitic Agenda and which destroyed the research efforts of the Jewish Scientific Community in Germany. However Nazis & Germany paid the prize for this the hatred of ‘Jewish Science’ by downplaying pursuit of Nuclear Program comparable to /Manhattan project’
It is The Manhattan Project an Interactive History elaborately provides the unfolding Sequence of events which led to Discovery of Atomic Weapons emerging from Albert Einstein’s 1905 theoretical formula E=mc2 which stated that matter and energy were equivalent, ushered breathtaking possibilities. I have just summarized how the same equation provided the momentum in historical stages.
Antoine Becquerel, discovered Alpha, Beta & Gama as the basic forms of radioactivity, Marie and Pierre Curie, discovered radium and polonium, Rutherford proposed that radioactivity was caused by the breakdown of atoms; postulated that electrons orbit an atom’s nucleus, similar to the planets orbit the sun and identified the second fundamental atomic particle, proton in 1919. Niels Bohr combined Rutherford’s atomic concepts with Max Planck’s quantum theory to produce the first modern model of the atom.
In the 1930s, scientists learned a tremendous amount about the structure of the atom by bombarding it with sub-atomic particles. At the beginning in 1934, the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi began bombarding elements with neutrons. After number of experiments It was in NAZI Germany, in December 1938 the radio chemists Otto Hahn, with Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann, while bombarding elements with neutrons in their Berlin laboratory, discovered that uranium nuclei changed significantly and broke into two roughly equal pieces. Frisch, defined this process as Binary Fission. Fritz Strassmann named the process as Fission as derived from Biological Analogy.Hahn was awarded the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery. It was the Einstein’s theoretical formula E=mc2 (energy equals mass times the square of the velocity of light & that matter and energy were different forms of the same thing, unlocked the secrets of how these minute particles were held together—and how they could be broken apart—could produce a massive release of energy.
It is claimed that E=mc2: Einstein’s equation that gave birth to the atom bomb. In the late-1930s, Einstein learned that German scientists are in the process of creating the atom bomb. When he leant about THE DISCOVERY OF FISSION by Lise Neither & Otto Hahn at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute at Berlin, Germany (1938-1939) he was alarmed. Also, the prospects of the UN unchecked reaction could create an explosion of huge force made him to shiver to his core. He abandoned his ‘pacifist Principles’ with fear of destructive weapons in the hands of the Nazis and aligned himself with Hungarian physicist Leo Szilard, and helped him to write a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt to conduct atomic research. Einstein never participated in the Manhattan Project directly however expressed deep regrets about his role though negligible in bringing about the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings.
Upon becoming president, Harry Truman learned of the Manhattan Project, a secret scientific effort to create an atomic bomb. After a successful test of the weapon, Truman issued the Potsdam Declaration demanding the unconditional surrender of the Japanese government, warning of “prompt and utter destruction.” Eleven days later, on August 6, 1945, having received no reply, an American bombers dropped the bombs named ‘Little Boy’ an ‘Fat Man’ respectively on Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively on 6th August and 9th August 1945 respectively killing Lacks of people
The tremors of horrifying experiences turned Albert Einstein into front running advocate of nuclear disarmament, controls on weapons testing and advocate of “Unified world government”. His efforts to join hands with Bertrand Russell in 1955, to sign “Russell-Einstein Manifesto,” a public Manifesto to stress “The risks of nuclear war and implored governments to “find peaceful means for the settlement of all disputes between them.” We are reminded of his similar exercise in 1914, in drafting ‘Manifesto to the Europeans″ to confront, a ‘Manifesto of Ninety three” drafted by German artists and intellectuals to justify Germany’s militarism and position during the First World War Declaration of support to Germany’s World War I’.
To bite off more than one can chew, we can say that we can quote, Albert Einstein, who acknowledged his mistakes in supporting USA inadvertently, who had profusely appreciated and described Paul Levi, the leader of the KPD, and who walked on the footsteps of Rosa Luxemburg and Leon Trotsky on Jewish Question as the “one of the wisest, most just and courageous persons I have come across” The question is could he have walked on the footsteps of Rosa, Leon and Paul Levi to have emerged, not only as a Genius Revolutionary Scientist but a Humanitarian Leader who did not waver, vacillate or regret on his fight for achieving International Pacifism and who made Human History by refraining himself from supporting constitution Jewish State or by expressing his guilt in inadvertently helping though in negligible way the American Imperialism in making Nuclear Weapons!.
Anil Pundlik Gokhale is an Engineer by profession. As a non regular writer on political literature I have always been attempting to integrate Psychology and Marxism. I have recently published books ‘Condensation And Condescension In Dreams And History: Essay – From Sigmund Freud To E P Thompson’ by Author House London. Psychoanalysis & A- Historical Story of GENGHIS KHAN, Author House- London.