Remembering Dr. B.R. Ambedkar:  Celebrating the 74th Constitution Day

ambedkar dalit

(The present article is published to mark the occasion of Constitution Day, November 26, 2022. It may be deemed as part-2 of an earlier article, published an year ago: 

 A Peep into the past: On the occasion of 65th Anniversary of Ambedkar’s Nirvana – Remembering Ambedkar and Revisiting his Thoughts (06/12/2021)

https://countercurrents.org/2021/12/a-peep-into-the-past-on-the-occasion-of-65th-anniversary-of-ambedkars-nirvana-remembering-ambedkar-and-revisiting-his-thoughts/ )

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26th November 2022 is being celebrated as “the 74th Constitution Day”  and it is appropriate to remember Dr. B.R. Ambedkar,  the Chairman of the Drafting Committee,  on this historic Day.

This job is performed in Two Parts.  In the First Part,  the Prophetic Statement made to the Constituent Assembly,  presided over by Dr. Rajendra Prasad,  the President of the Constituent Assembly,  while introducing the “Draft Constitution of  India” for the final approval of the Constituent Assembly,  on the 26th Day of November 1949.  I reproduce a Part of his Statement,  which reads as follows:

“I feel,  however good a Constitution may be,  it is sure to turn out bad because those who are called to work it happen to be a bad lot,  However bad a Constitution may be,  it may turn out to be good,  if those who are called to work it,  happen to be a good lot.  The working of a Constitution does not depend wholly upon the nature of the Constitution.  The Constitution can provide only the organs of State such as the legislature,  the executive and the Judiciary.  The factor on which the working of those organs of the State depends are the people and the Political Parties they will set up as their instruments to carry  out their wishes and their politics.  Who can say how the People of India and their Parties behave?”

There is another important Paragraph of Dr. Ambedkar’s statement, and it is as follows:

“In addition to our old enemies in the form of Castes and Creeds we are going to have many political Parties with diverse and opposing creeds.  Will Indians place the country above the creed or will they place the creed above Country?  Our independence will be put in jeopardy a second time and possibly be lost for ever.  This eventually we must all resolutely guard against.  We must be determined to defend our independence with the last drop of our blood”.

In the context of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s statements made to the Constituent Assembly made on 26th November 1949,  it is desirable to have a peep at a few of the vital happenings in the 73 long years of Political developments of India.  These instances are cited to establish how Prophetic Dr.Ambedkar was,  when he said “…… However good a Constitution may be,  it is sure to turn out bad because of those who are called to work it”.

I desire to cite the most tragic episode in Indian Constitutional history,  when Mrs. Indira Gandhi,  the Prime Minister of India, in 1975 declared Emergency by invoking the Provisions of the Constitution of India,  and during this Black Period,  transformed India into a Dictatorship under the “so called Democratic Constitution?”.  That was a period which could as well be nomenclatured as “Constitutional Dictatorship”,  when even the fundamental rights were suspended and a rule of tyranny unleashed.

While the above episode deals with a dictatorship under a declared Emergency,  and can be attributed to the Congress Party’s rule,  take the recent past under the Rule of N.D.A,  headed by the Bharatiya Janata Party under Sri Narendra Modi’s Prime Ministership.  International Research Organisations which have carried out research of the functioning of Parliamentary Democracy after 2014 till 2022,  have concluded that “India is an Electoral Autocracy”.

This is a Phase of “undeclared Emergency”  and a “Fascist Autocratic Rule under the mask of Electoral Democracy”.

In this context a very recent observation of the Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court of India [on November 23, 2022]  stated as follows – “An Election Commissioner should be one who could take a stand even risking his life,  and not a docile “Yes Man”  whom the Govt. knew would do its bidding”;  “Suppose the Election Commissioner is asked to take on none less than the Prime Minister ……….  We are just giving an example.  And the Election Commissioner is so weak-kneed,  that he  does not get around doing it,  will it not be a case of complete breakdown of the system?”.

This is only one typical example of “Yes Men”  being  appointed in an “Autocratic Regime”  which would transform a “Parliamentary Democracy” into an “Electoral Autocracy”.

Dr. Ambedkar is proved right when he said way back on 26th November 1949,  that “even a good Constitution would turn bad,  if those who are called upon to work it,  happen to be a bad lot”.

Let us now look into the Second statement of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar,  wherein he said,  “will Indians place the country above  their creed or will they place the creed above the country?”  A deep look into the happenings in India,  under the rule of Fascist  forces, dominating the BJP rule, under Prime Minister Narendra Modi,  it looks obvious that the Ruling Class has been placing creed  above the country.  These forces even go to the extent of saying “ours is a Hindu India”  and thereby placing “Creed above the country”.  Dr. Ambedkar had warned Indians above this possible development  and thus went to the extent of saying “This eventuality we must all resolutely guard against.  We must be determined to defend our independence with the last drop of our blood”,  and the question now is,  has not such a day come?  Is it  not the time when all progressive and secular Indians should come together and get determined to defend our independence with the last drop of our blood?

Dr. Ambedkar was prophetic, and when the country is celebrating the 74th Constitution Day”,  all the rational-thinking people of this country must take a vow to save our independence even at the cost of the last drop of our blood!

PART-II :  States and Minorities  

Now let me turn to the Second Part of my “Critique”  relating  to “Remembering Dr. B.R. Ambedkar”.  I desire to dwelve into the comparatively less discussed of his monumental “Memorandum on the safeguards for scheduled castes submitted to the Constituent Assembly on behalf of the All India Scheduled Castes Federation on 15th March 1947.  Dr. Ambedkar called this historic document as “States and Minorities”  and sub-captioned it as “What are their rights and how to secure them in the Constitution of free India”.  Dr. Ambedkar called this epic document as “Constitution of United States of India”.  It would not be out of place to describe this great document as “Dr. Ambedkar’s Constitution”.  I would like to present a few of the very salient features of this historic document,  on the occasion of “Remembering Dr. B.R. Ambedkar”.

While I propose to deal with this Part in Three Sub-Parts,  I desire to touch upon only a very few of the most salient aspects even in these Sub-Parts,  as the document is an elaborate one.  However at the out-set I would like to give a brief out-line of this entire document.

The out-line

This historic document contains  [A] Preface  [B] Proposed Preamble  [C] Proposed Art I  [D] Proposed Art II  and  [E] Explanatory Notes.  [Contained in four Parts as Appendix I to Appendix IV.  The entire Text of this Memorandum runs into 68 Pages in Printed Demmy Octavo.

The Three Sub-Parts

For the sake of this “Critique”,  I have chosen to deal with the following:  Sub-Part-I (Regarding the Preface);  Sub-Part-II (Regarding only some Parts of “Proposed Article II,  which has 4 Sections,  and Sub-Part-III,  which deals with Parts of “Explanatory Notes”.  These would suffice to throw new light on the eminent views of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in this Memorandum under reference.

Sub-Part-I

[Regarding the “PREFACE”]

The “Preface”  presents a prefatory note in the following terms:  “Soon after it became definite that the framing of the future Constitution of India was to be entrusted to the Constituent Assembly,  the Working Committee of the All India Scheduled Castes Federation asked me to prepare a Memorandum on the safeguards for the Scheduled Castes for being submitted to the Constituent Assembly on behalf of the Federation.  I very gladly undertook the task.  The results of my labour are contained in this brochure”.

This extract provides the back-ground as to how and why this “Memorandum”  was prepared.  In the next Paragraph,  it is stated as follows:

“The Memorandum defines Fundamental Rights,  Minority Rights and Safeguards for the Scheduled Castes.  Those who hold the view that the Scheduled Castes are not a minority might say that in this matter I have gone beyond prescribed bounds.  The view that the Scheduled Castes are not a minority is a new dispensation based on behalf of the High and  Mighty Hindu Majority which the Scheduled Castes are asked to submit to.  The Spokesmen of the Majority have not cared to define its scope and its meaning.  Anyone with a fresh and free mind,  reading it as a general proposition,  would be justified in saying that the Scheduled Castes are more than a minority and that any protection given to the Citizens and to the minorities will not be adequate for the Scheduled Castes.  In other words it means that their social,  economic and educational condition is so much worse than that to the citizens and other minorities that in addition to protection  they would get as citizens and as minorities, the Scheduled Castes would require special safeguards against the tyranny and discrimination of the majority.  The other interpretation is that the Scheduled Caste differ from a minority and therefore they are not entitled to the protection which can be claimed by a majority.  This interpretation appears to be such unmitigated nonsense that no sane man need pay any attention to it ………….  Those who accept the view that the Scheduled Castes are not a minority will,  I am sure,  agree with me that I am justified in demanding for the Scheduled Castes,  all the benefit of the Fundamental Rights of Citizens,  all the benefit of the Provisions for the protection of minorities and in addition special safeguards”.

This extract amply explains the purpose as to why Dr. Ambedkar scripted this “Memorandum”  and his emphasis on “additional special safeguards for the Scheduled Castes”.  Hence there is a dire need to study the Memorandum which provides “Special Safeguards for the Scheduled Castes”.

In this “Preface”,  Dr. Ambedkar specially explains the methodology he adopts in drafting this “Memorandum”  in the following terms:

“Instead of setting out my ideas in general terms,  I have drafted the Memorandum in the form of Articles of the Constitution.  I am sure that for the sake of giving Point and  Precision this method will be found to be more useful”.  For the benefit of the working committee of the Scheduled Castes Federation,  I had prepared certain explanatory notes and other statistical material that  are likely to be useful to the general reader,  I have thought it better to print them along with the Memorandum rather than to keep them back”.

The above extract explains to us as to why Dr. Ambedkar chose to script his “Memorandum”  in the form of “Articles of the Constitution”  and as to the purpose of adding the “Explanatory Notes”.

It is absolutely important to clearly understand the “Preface”  because this throws new light on as to why Dr. Ambedkar pleaded for “Special Safeguards for the Scheduled Castes”  as also as to why he chose the method to script the “Memorandum”  “in the form of “Articles of the Constitution”,  and the purpose of the “Explanatory Notes”.

Sub-Part-B

While “Constitution of the United States of India”  contains,  a proposed Preamble,  proposed Art 1[which deals with Admission of Indian States into the Union and United States of India and New Territories],   in Proposed Art II,  which deals with in Sec 1.  Fundamental Rights of Citizens,  Sec II with “Remedies against Invasion of Fundamental Rights,  Section III with provisions for the Protection of Minorities and Section IV deals with Safeguards for the Scheduled Castes…

In this “Critique”  I propose to deal with only certain very important aspects of Art II Sec I”,  similarly important aspects of Art II – Sec II,  salient aspects of Art II Sec III and more details relating to Art II – Sec IV.  Further I am not dealing with either “Proposed Preamble”  or “Proposed Art I”  which deals with the Indian States.

Regarding Proposed Article II – Sec 1 which deals with “Fundamental Rights of Citizens” – This Section contains 21 Rights and I desire to specifically mention only a few of them.  In the opening of this Section I,  it is stated as follows:

“The Constitution of United States of India shall recognize the following as Fundamental Rights of Citizens”.

I cite here-under a few of these 21 Sections .  They are:

“No.2,  No State shall make or enforce any law or  custom which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of Citizens,  nor shall any State deprive any person of life,  liberty and property without due process of law;  nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction equal protection of law”.

“No.8.  The Union Government shall guarantee against persecution of a Community as well as against internal disorder or violence arising in any Part of India”.

“No.9:  Subjecting a person to forced Labour or to involuntary servitude shall be an offence”.

“No.11:  The right of a Citizen to vote shall not be denied or abridged on any account other than immaturity,  imprisonment and insanity”.

“No.12:  No law shall be made abridging the freedom of Speech,  of the Press,  of Association and of Assembly except for consideration of Public Order and morality”.

“No.14:  The State shall guarantee  to every Indian Citizen liberty of conscience and the free exercise of his religion including the right to profess,  to preach and to convert within limits compatible with public order or morality”.

“No.17:  The State shall not recognise any religion as State religion”.

No.21:  All offences under this section shall be deemed to be cognizable offences. The Union legislature shall make laws to give effect to such provisions as require legislation for that purpose and to prescribe punishment for those acts which are declared to be offences”.

The few instances cited above from Art II – Sec I evidence the great concern of Dr. Ambedkar regarding ensuring Fundamental Rights to all citizens, and the particular Paragraphs cited evidence his concern for freedom of speech,  of the Press,  of Association and of Assembly,  and the great concern of Dr. Ambedkar to preserve India as a Secular State and thus lays down at No.17.  The State shall not recognize any religion as State Religion”.

Regarding Article II – Section II dealing with “Remedies against invasion of Fundamental Rights”.  This Section commences with the mandatory direction.  “The United States of India shall provide:  “and lays down 4 Clauses,  of which I desire to specially cite “Clause 4”,  which reads as follows:

“The United States of India shall declare as Part of the Law of its Constitution.

[1] The industries which are key industries or which may be declared to be Key industries shall be owned and run by the State;

[2] That industries which are not Key industries but which are basic industries shall be owned by the State and shall be run by the State or by Corporations established by the State;

[4] The agriculture shall be State Industry;

[10] The Scheme shall be brought into operation as early as possible but in no case shall the period extend beyond the tenth year from the date of the Constitution coming into effect.

‘Regarding “Article-II – Section III – Provisions for the Protection of Minorities”  I specially cite hereunder a few of the very vital ideas of Dr.Ambedkar,  which are extracted as follows:

Under “Clause-1”, (3) reads as follows:  “(3) The Prime Minister shall be elected by the whole House by single transferable vote.

[4] The representatives of the different minorities in the Cabinet shall be elected by members of each minority community in the Legislature by single transferable vote”.

“[5] The representatives of the majority community in the Executive shall be elected by the whole House by single transferable vote”.

“[6] A member of the Cabinet  may resign his post on a censure motion or otherwise but shall not be liable to be removed except on impeachment by the House on the ground of corruption or treason”.

Now let us proceed to extract the salient aspects of Art II – Sec IV,  which deals with ‘Safeguards for these Scheduled Castes”.  This Section –IV  is the main purpose with which “the Memorandum”  for submission to the Constituent Assembly was prepared by Dr. Ambedkar,  at the behest of the All India Schedule Castes Federation and is the most vital part of the  said “Memorandum”.  This Section contains 5 Parts and are designated as follows:  Part-I – Guarantees,  Part-II – Special Responsibilities,  Part-III – Sanction for Safeguards and Amendment of Safeguards,  Part-IV – Protection of Safeguards in Indian States and Part-V – Interpretation.  While this is an elaborate Section,  for the purpose of this “Critique” only a few vital aspects of each of these Five Parts are extracted hereunder:

“Part-I” – which deals with “Guarantees”  contains 3 Clauses.  This Part commences as hereunder:

“The Constitution of “the United States of India shall guarantee to the Scheduled Castes the following rights”:

“Clause 1” deals with “Right to Representation in the Legislature “and at Para [1] states:  “Quantum of Representation – [a] The Scheduled Castes shall have minimum representation in the Legislature – Union and States – and if there be a group Constitution then in the group Legislature equal to the ratio of their population to the total population.  Provided that no other minority is allowed to claim more representation that what is due to it on the basis of its population”.

Para [2] deals with the “Method of Election”  and has been divided into two Parts [A] and [B].  “Part-A” deals with the method for “Legislative Bodies”  and states as follows:

“[a] The System of Elction introduced by the Poona Pact shall be abolished.

[b] In its place,  the system of Separate Electorates shall be substituted.

[c] Franchise shall be adult franchise.

[d] The system of voting shall be cumulative”.

“Clause-2” deals with the “Right to Representation in the Executive” and lays down as follows:  “[1] The Scheduled Castes shall have minimum representation in the Executive – Union and States – and if there be group Constitution then in the group Executive equal to the ratio of the population to the total population.  Provided that no minor community is allowed to claim more than its population ratio”.

In “Clause-3” “Right to Representation in the Services”  is provided.  It reads as follows:

“[a] The quantum of representation of the Scheduled Castes in the Services shall be as follows:

[i] In Union Services – In proportion to the ratio of their population to the total population in India or British India as the case may be.

[ii] In the States and Group Services – In proportion to their population in the State or Union.

[iii] In the Municipal and Local Board Services – In proportion to their population in the Municipal and Local Board areas.

[e] On every Public Service  Commission or a committee constituted for filling vacancies,  the Scheduled Castes shall have at least one representative”.

In “Part-II” – “Special Responsibilities”  are made mandatory.  It is laid down as follows:

“That the United States of India shall undertake the following special responsibilities for the betterment of the Scheduled Castes”  – This Part has two Clauses.

“Clause-1” states as follows:

“[1] Governments – Union and States – shall be required to assume financial responsibility for the higher education of the Scheduled Castes and shall be required to make adequate Provisions in their budgets.  State Provisions shall form the first charge on the Education Budget of the Union and State Government.

[2] The responsibility for finding money for Secondary and College Education of the Scheduled Castes in India shall be upon the State Governments and the different States shall make a Provision in their annual budget for the said purpose in proportion to the Population of the Scheduled Castes to the total budget of the State.

[B] The responsibility for funding money for foreign education of the Scheduled Castes shall be the responsibility of the Union Government and the Union Government shall make a provision of rupees 10 Lakhs per year in its annual budget in that behalf.

[4] These special grants shall be without prejudice to the right of the Scheduled Castes to share in the expenditure incurred by the State Govt. for the advancement of Primary Education for the people of the State.

“Clause-2” under Part-II,  deals with the provision for New Settlements and lays down as follows:

“1.  The following provision shall be made in the Constitution of the Union Government.

[i] There shall be a Settlement Commission under the new Constitution to hold uncultivated lands belonging to the State in trust for Settlement of Scheduled Castes in separate villages.

[ii] The Union Government shall set apart annually a fund of Rs.5 Crore for the purpose of Promoting the scheme of Settlement”.

Proceeding to “Part-III”  which deals with “Sanction for Safeguards and Amendment for Safeguards”.  It has 2 Clauses and “Clause-1” lays down as follows:

“The Constitution of the United States shall provide that – The United States of India undertakes to give the safeguards contained in Article II Section IV a place in the Constitution and make them Part of the Constitutional Law of India”.

“Clause 2” makes elaborate provisions as to “the mode of amendments for safeguards”.

“Part-IV” deals with “Protection of Scheduled Castes in the Indian States”, and “Part V” provides for “Interpretation”.

A careful study of the provisions in “Art-II” “Section I” relating to the “Safeguards for Scheduled Castes”  laid out elaborately in the “5 Parts”  reveals the immense concern of Dr. Ambedkar in safeguarding the Scheduled Castes,  and it is a sorry commentary to admit that “none of these concerns”  find appropriate reflection in the Text of the Constitution of India,  which was promulgated on the 26th January 1950  as the Constitution of the “Sovereign Democratic Republic of India”.  These facts needs to be probed and I have some special comments to make,  which I reserve for “the last Part of my Critique”.

“Explanatory Notes”

Let me now proceed to “Sub-Part –C”  of this “Critique”  and spell out certain salient parts of the “Explanatory Notes”  provided by Dr. Ambedkar as “Appendices”  to the “Memorandum”.  These “Explanatory Notes” reveal not only the vast Scholastic capabilities of Dr. Ambedkar but also the sharp critical mind in explaining the “Proposed Articles”  in his “Memorandum”.

While these “Explanatory Notes”  runs to 45 Pages in Print in Demy Octavo,  what needs to be curiously noticed is that while the actual Text of the entire Articles,  including the Proposed Preamble,  runs to only 16 Pages in print in Demly Octavo,   the “Explanatory Notes”  run to 44 Pages.  This shows the importance given to the “Explanatory Notes”  by Dr. Ambedkar himself.

This Part of the “Document”  needs a thorough study,  but for the sake of the present “Crituque”  ony very few and very vital observations of Dr. Ambedkar have been picked up as “Extracts” and this is on certain select aspects of the “Articles” of Dr. Ambedkar.  The two topics chosen for the purpose of this “Critique”  are [1] The view of Dr. Ambedkar on “State Socialism”  and  [2] The view of Dr. Ambedkar on the adoption of the British Cabinet System for India.  The extracts from the elaborate “Explanatory Notes”  on these two subjects are as follows:

“On State Socialism”

“The plan set out in the Clause (Article II – Section II – Clause 4)  proposes State ownership in agriculture with a collectivised method of cultivation and as modified form of State Socialism in the field of industry.  It places squarely on the shoulders of the State the obligation to supply capital necessary for agriculture as well as industry “……..  “State Socialism is essential for the rapid industrialisation of India”  ………  “it is an attempt to establish State Socialism without abrogating Parliamentary Democracy and without leaving its establishment to the  will of a Parliamentary Democracy”. …………  “The problem therefore is to have State Socialism without Dictatorship,  to have State Socialism with Parliamentary Democracy.  The way seems to be to retain Parliamentary Democracy and to prescribe State Socialism by the Law of the Constitution so that it will be beyond the reach of a Parliamentary majority to suspend,  amend or abrogate it.  It is only by this that one can achieve the triple object,  namely,  to establish socialism retain Parliamentary Democracy and avoid Dictatorship”.

The above  extract evidences the profound faith of Dr. Ambedkar on Socialism,  his innate desire to retain Parliamentary Democracy and to avoid Dictatorship.

On “British System being applied to the Indian situation”,  the views of Dr. Ambedkar are extracted as hereunder:

“As to the consequence that would follow if the British System was  applied to India,  the situation can be summed up in the following Proposition.

[1] ……..  It is clear that if the British System was copied,  it would result in permanently  vesting Executive Power in communal majority”.

[2] The British System of Government ……………..  if applied to India  ……………..  it would make the majority community a governing class and the minority  community a subject race ……………  Such a state of affairs could not be called democracy.  It would have to be called imperialism”.

“The introduction of the British type of Executive will be full of menace to the life,  liberty and pursuit of happiness of the minorities in general and of the untouchables in particular”.

“Under Swaraj the untouchables will have no way to escape from the destiny of degradation,  which Hindus and Hinduism have fixed for them”.

“Taking all these considerations together there is no doubt that the British type of the Executive is entirely unsuited to India”. 

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The observations and  concluding Remarks

An incisive understanding of “the Constitution of the United States of India”  as incorporated in the “Memorandum submitted to the Constituent  Assembly,  reveals without an iota of doubt that none of the ideas incorporated  in the above “Ambedkar’s Constitution”  are found incorporated in “the Constitution of India”  as adopted by the “Constituent Assembly”  and promulgated on 26th January 1950.  

This is the stark reality in spite of the unassailable fact that Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee which drafted the “Constitution of India”.  This remains an unresolved mystery.  But perhaps a possible explanation to this mystery can be found in the statement made in the Rajya Sabha,  in answer to the poser made by the then Union Home Minister Sri Katju,  who had asked Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to reply to a debate (on September 2, 1953; it was on a Bill meant to create a new Andhra state) referred to the Constitution… Katju told Dr. Ambedkar – “Dr. Ambedkar!  You are the Architect of the Constitution..”  Please reply to the debate”  and the cryptic answer given by Dr. Ambedkar was: You call me the maker of the Constitution… I was a hack. What I was asked to write, I did much against my will…

“You want to accuse me of your blemishes…I am prepared to say that I shall be the first person to burn it out. I do not want it. It does not suit anybody.” 

( Cited from Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, a biography by Dhananjay Keer, p. 449-450, 2010 Edition, Popular Prakashan.  It was first published in 1954, when  Ambedkar was alive. The author in his Preface thanked him for the interviews he gave and for his clarifications on some points.)

In the face of this remark by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar,  do we require any other ground to say as to why the brilliant proposals incorporated by Dr. Ambedkar in his epic Memorandum,  “Constitution of the United States of India”  does not find a place in “Constitution of India”  as promulgated on 26th January 1950.

Should not these very vital aspects make every sensible Indian contemplate on these dimensions of “the real Ambedkar’s Constitution”  on this Memorable “74th Constitution Day”  being celebrated with pomp on 26th November 2022?

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About the author

He was the Co-Author of  the book, “Indian Constitution Unriddled. For more on it, see

https://countercurrents.org/2017/01/indian-constitution-unriddled-search-for-sources/

Dr KS Sharma (born 1934),  Retired Professor and Principal of JSS Sakri  Law College based at Hubli, Karnataka, and a doctorate in political science, has been a leader of working class for over 50 years now, focused on unorganized labor, and as Founder-President of Karnataka State Govt. Dailywage Employees Federation, successfully organized one lakh dailywagers of Govt of Karnataka who got regularized after 30 years of struggle that included street battles and legal battles going upto Supreme Court.

He is a great teacher, poet, writer, dramatist, literary critic, columnist, publisher, orator, and an activist-social scientist who was a President of ISSA, Indian Social Science Academy, for some time. Post-retirement, he did his doctorate on Indian State : From Marxian Perspective.

He is the Founder President of a group of Institutions including an ITI, Institute of Naturopathy and Yoga, Dr. Da Ra Bendre (Jnana Peeth Awardee) Research Institute ( which edited and published about 150 books by Bendre), Indian Institute of Marxist Theory and Practice, FMRRC- Fluorosis Mitigation Research and Resource Centre all located in Vishwa Shrama Chetana campus, Hubli.

He may be contacted at:  [email protected],

[email protected]

***                    ***

He is a supporter of countercurrents.org… Some of his earlier contributions published in countercurrents.org are mentioned below:

Seven Decades Of The Decaying Republic: Indian Democracy Unmasked ( 25/01/2020)

https://countercurrents.org/2020/01/seven-decades-of-the-decaying-republic-indian-democracy-unmasked/

Chief Minister – Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Policies – Programmes X-rayed – Part I (23/03/2019)

https://countercurrents.org/2019/03/chief-minister-prime-minister-narendra-modis-policies-programmes-x-rayed/

Chief Minister – Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Policies – Programmes X-rayed – Part II (24/03/2019)

https://countercurrents.org/2019/03/chief-minister-prime-minister-narendra-modis-policies-programmes-x-rayed-part-ii/

Some of his earlier contributions on Dr. BR Ambedkar, published in countercurrents.org are mentioned below:

Ambedkar And Parliamentary Democracy, 14 April, 2016.

https://countercurrents.org/sharma140416.htm

The Forgotten Message Of Ambedkar To The Working Class, 30 April, 2016.

https://www.countercurrents.org/sharma300416.htm

Re-Reading Dr BR Ambedkar’s Earliest Paper On Caste 100 Years Later, 04 June, 2016

https://countercurrents.org/sharma040616.htm

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