WWII & Holocaust Could Never Have Happened Without American Corporations Investing & Joint Venturing with Hitler’s Poor Nazi Germany – Chapter 1


This is the first chapter of a 18 chapter book by J. Jankovsky-Novak alias Jay Janson to be serialised in the next few days in CC

Impossibility of a Prostate Disarmed and Captive Nazi Germany Rearming Itself While Under British and French Armed Enforcement of Prohibitions of Versailles Treaty Law

The Treaty of Versailles that ended the First World War forced reduction of the strength of the German army from 4,500,000 in 1918 to 100,000. Its navy was not to exceed 15,000 men, including manning for the fleet, coast defenses, signal stations, administration, and other land services. Heavy weapons armored vehicles, submarines and capital ships were forbidden, as were aircraft of any kind. Compliance with these restrictions was monitored until 1927 by the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control. [1]

In Germany, 1918 to 1929 was a already a time of low economic growth and mass unemployment. The Wall Street Crash during the autumn of 1929 had grave consequences for Germany. German unemployment brought suffering to 20 million people. All over Germany there were people desperate for money to feed, clothe and house their families. Many homeless were camping out in the parks of Berlin.

Adolf Hitler was named chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933,  just three years and three months after the worldwide calamity of the US Stock Market Crash of October 29, 1929.

There is simply no way an impoverished and utterly demilitarized Nazi Germany, with no air force, a tiny navy, no armored vehicles, no heavy weapons and a tiny army, could have on its own, built its armed forces up to the most powerful military in the world during the first six years of Hitler’s rule without the colossal and crucial investments in, and joint venturing by, powerful US corporations in low wage Nazi Germany in outright evasion of the Versailles Treaty prohibition of German rearmament. There is no way Hitler could have begun a world war and a multi-nation Holocaust, when he did, without the mega enormous financial and technical help he received from the United States of America. England and France cooperated, especially in allowing the abandonment of the prohibitions on German rearmament, while Western media defended the building up of Nazi Germany’s military as only a ‘bulwark’ against the Soviet Union.

Fascism Shown as a Deliberate Cultivation by the Rulers of Anglo-American Imperialism

We are fortunate to have Finian Cunningham’s excellently written description of the mega great deception that underlies most subsequent deceptions in our post-WW II world of deceit by media managed public ignorance and intentionally misleading information.

“The Western public, inculcated with decades of brainwashing versions of history, have a particular disadvantage in coming to a proper understanding of the world wars…

A very different ‘version’ of history has been concealed, a ‘version’ that puts the Western rulers in an altogether more pernicious category from their ordinary citizens.

European fascism headed up by Nazi Germany, along with Mussolini in Italy, Franco in Spain and Salazar in Portugal, was not some aberrant force that sprang from nowhere during the 1920s-1930s. The movement was a deliberate cultivation by the rulers of Anglo-American capitalism. European fascism may have been labeled “national socialism” but its root ideology was very much one opposed to overturning the fundamental capitalist order. It was an authoritarian drive to safeguard the capitalist order, which viewed genuine worker-based socialism as an enemy to be ruthlessly crushed.

This is what made European fascism so appealing to the Western capitalist ruling class in those times. In particular, Nazi Germany was viewed by the Western elite as a bulwark against possible socialist revolution inspired by the Russian revolution of 1917.

It is no coincidence that American capital investment in Nazi Germany between 1929-1940 far outpaced that in any other European country, … The industrial rearmament of Germany, despite the strictures of the Versailles Treaty signed by the representatives of 32 nations at the end of World War One, (which were ignored) was indeed facilitated by the American and British capitalist ruling classes.

“The target for the Western sponsors of the Nazi war machine.”

The real target for the Western sponsors of the Nazi war machine was an attack on the Soviet Union in order to destroy, in their view, the source of international revolutionary socialism. In the 1930s, the very existence of capitalism was teetering on the edge amid the Great Depression, massive poverty and seething popular discontent in the US, Britain and other Western countries. The entire Western capitalist order was under imminent threat from its own masses. This is the historical context for the Western-backed rise of European fascism.

Look at some of the undisputed figures from the Second World War… Some 14 million Red Army soldiers died in the eventual defeat of Nazi Germany, compared with less than 400,000 military each from the US and Britain. These Western armies lost less than 4 per cent of personnel of the Red Army’s casualties.

These figures tell us where the Nazi German war effort was primarily directed towards – the Soviet Union, as the Western imperialist rulers had hoped in their initial sponsoring of Nazi and other European fascist regimes during the 1930s.”

(Quoted from Finian Cunningham [2] article ‘World War II Continues… Against Russia,’ PressTV, 5/10/2014)

Hitler Made His Intentions Regarding Russia and Communism Clear Early On 

Nazi Party leader Adolph Hitler in his 1925 published autobiographical manifesto Mein Kampf had emphasized Germany’s need for ‘Lebensraum’ (‘living space’), insisting that Germany’s 19th century motto ‘Drang Nach Osten’ (‘push to the East,’ a slogan designating German expansion into Slavic lands), must become a reality.

This was strikingly proclaimed by Hitler in his book Mein Kampf, which by 1939 had sold 5.2 million copies in eleven languages. [3]

“The National-Socialist movement must attempt to remove the  disproportion between the number of our population and the size of  our territory to secure for the German people the soil that is due to them  on this earth. And this action is the only one that can justify a sacrifice  of blood before God and our German posterity. . . . “

“Just as our ancestors did not receive the soil on which we live to-  day as a gift from Heaven, but had to fight for it with the sacrifice of  their lives, so in future no national grace will secure our soil and the  life of our people, but only the power of the victorious sword”

(Adolph Hitler Mein Kampf, pp. 740-1)

A Colonial Powers Exploited World Mismanaged Into the Suffering of the Great Depression

The Capitalist Colonial Powers Found Themselves In Dreadful Circumstances

Hitler’s uncompromisingly lethal condemnation of communism and his threatening the very existence of Wall Street’s archenemy, socialist Soviet Union, would have to have impressed many of the US and European wealthy, whose racist capitalist colonial rule of most of the world was threatened by socialist fervor and riots at home for its failure to have prevented the ongoing Great Depression with tens of millions suffering even from lack of food. Newsreels of massive and violent riots in many US cities can be seen on YouTube at ‘Riots Across America – The Great Depression.’  This author was really struck by the massive violence seen in these newsreels of that time.

The Great Depression was the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world, lasting from the stock market crash of 1929 to 1939. It began after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors. Over the next several years, the industrial production in America dropped by half. Bread lines, soup kitchens and rising numbers of homeless people became more and more common in America’s towns and cities. Farmers couldn’t afford to harvest their crops, and were forced to leave them rotting in the fields while people elsewhere starved. (“The Great Depression,” Editors of history.com)

In disrespect to US President Hoover, “Hoovervilles” became the common name for homeless shantytowns and “Hoover blankets” for the newspapers that the homeless used to keep warm. A “Hoover flag” was a pants pocket—empty of all money—turned inside out. Over fifty thousand New York citizens were homeless by the end of 1932. [3a] In the larger cities, breadlines and soup lines became a common sight. At one count in 1932, there were as many as eighty-two breadlines in New York City. Despite these efforts, however, people were destitute and many ultimately starving. Even as late as 1939, over 60 percent of rural households, and 82 percent of farm families, were classified as “impoverished.” By 1932, approximately one-half of all black Americans were unemployed. Racial violence also began to rise. In the South, lynching became more common again, with twenty-eight documented lynchings in 1933. [3a]

In the Spring of 1932 thousands of hungry war veterans and their families marched to Washington and set up camp to protest non-payment of their promised “service certificates.” The Bonus March ended violently when the US Attorney General ordered them to leave. When they refused the Army was instructed to charge the camp of some 40,000 protesters, men women and children. General MacArthur, Colonel Dwight Eisenhower, and George Patton led the assault on the peaceful petitioners with bayonets attached and cavalry sabers drawn. General Douglas MacArthur considered the protest “a Communist attempt to overthrow the U.S. government.” [4]

If ever a political credo was vindicated by wider events, the stock market crash of October 1929 reinforced the Communist Party USA’s goal to overturn the capitalist system. The Crash personified capitalism in its most obvious failing, and was, as well, communists’ greatest chance to establish the case for a Marxist, worker-based economy and political system. The Communist Party called for the formation of Unemployed Councils. In cities like New York, Chicago, and Detroit, the Unemployed Councils made an immediate impact, staging large attention- getting demonstrations in the winter and spring of 1930 and in subsequent years building neighborhood based Councils that fought for public assistance and rallied neighbors to conduct rent strikes and resist evictions. With the building of party-controlled unions, The Trade Union Unity League became the Communist alternative to the American Federation of Labor. Soon after the founding of the TUUL, approximately 50, 000 workers were organized by TUUL affiliates.[5]

TUUL activists attempted to organize some of the most marginal populations of the working class, such as the unemployed, women, and Blacks in the racially segregated American South.[6][7]

Charles Edward Coughlin, commonly known as Father Coughlin, was a Canadian-American Roman Catholic priest who was based in the United States near Detroit.

Throughout the 1930s, Charles E. Coughlin was one of the most influential men in the United States. Coughlin led radio broadcasts that reached tens of millions listeners. He broadcast religious services with political overtones and expressed antisemitic views. He also voiced pro-Nazi opinions that made him a person of interest for the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1942.

In a 1930 broadcast, Coughlin attributed the current economic problems to those who profited from usury. He stated, “We have lived to see the day that modern Shylocks have grown fat and wealthy, praised and deified, because they have perpetuated the ancient crime of usury under the modern racket of statesmanship.” (“Charles E. Coughlin,” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Holocaust Encyclopedia)

According to widely read author Sinclair Lewis, America came dangerously close to a revolution during this period of history. Lewis’s novel ‘It Can’t Happen Here’ was published in 1935, two years after Hitler seized power in Germany, as a political satire, dramatizing a possible fascist take over of the United States.

In April of 1938 President Roosevelt addressed Congress, [7A]

“Unhappy events abroad have retaught us two simple truths about the liberty of a democratic people. The first truth is that the liberty of a democracy is not safe if the people tolerate the growth of private power to a point where it becomes stronger than their democratic state itself. That, in its essence, is Fascism—ownership of Government by an individual, by a group, or by any other controlling private power. … Statistics of the Bureau of Internal Revenue reveal the following amazing figures for 1935: Of all corporations reporting from every part of the nation, one-tenth of 1 per cent of them owned 52 per cent of the assets of all of them; Of all corporations reporting, less than 5 per cent of them owned 87 per cent of all the assets of all of them; Of all the corporations reporting from every part of the country, one-tenth of 1 per cent of them earned 50 per cent of the net income of all of them; Of all the manufacturing corporations reporting, less than 4 per cent of them earned 84 per cent of all the net profits of all of them. Private enterprise, masking itself as a system of free enterprise after the American model, is in fact becoming a concealed cartel system after the European model.”

The Great Depression in the United Kingdom and France

In Britain, the industrial and mining areas in the north of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales experienced great suffering for the economic problems. In the early 1930s, with more than 3 million out of work nationally, in some areas unemployment reached 70%. Drastic cuts both in wages and the dole resulted in millions of the working class living in abject poverty experiencing a huge fall in their already poor living standards. Workers and the unemployed marched in protest of the harsh reductions imposed by the government.[8]The British Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1928 through 1931, Viscount Phillip Snowden, was popular in the Labor Party for having  denounced capitalism as unethical. Another government minister, Oswald Mosley, proposed that the government take control of banking and exports, and increase pensions. When his ideas were turned down, he left the governing Labour Party and eventually formed the British Union of Fascists. He was imprisoned during the war.[9] Sidney and Beatrice Webb, co-founders, along with George Bernard Shaw, of the London School of Economics, were repeating their dire warnings about the imminent death of capitalism and more and more people were paying attention.[10] From 1936 onwards, the National Government followed a policy of mass rearmament in the face of the rise of Nazi Germany, and by 1937 unemployment had fallen to 1.5 million.[11]

Britain was then as now, America’s closest ally, and during the 325 days before his  abdication in 1936, the King of England and the British Empire was for certain a greater follower of Hitler than most Germans. (In 1940, during the German occupation of France, the then Duke of Windsor, who had been forced to abdicate his kingship over disapproval of his marriage to an American divorcee, asked that German forces place guards at his Paris and Riviera homes – and they did. His pro-Hitler statements, while Governor of the Bahamas during the war had to be hushed up. Even as late as 1970 he spoke affectionately of Hitler.)[12]

There was turmoil in the world’s second largest empire as well. In France the Great Depression caused a rise of welfare capitalism and socialism. Communist and socialist parties increased their power and influence. In  February 1934, Paris police shot and killed fifteen members of far-right anti-parliamentarist organizations demonstrating in Place de Concord. In 1936, an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party and the socialist French Section of the Workers’ International came to power. That government introduced the 40-hour week, nationalized the Bank of France and the war industries, and carried out a far-reaching program of social reforms. In 1937, this governing Popular Front Alliance trying to aid the Republicans fighting against the fascists during the civil war in Spain contributed to it being replaced by a conservative government, even though it had followed Britain in an appeasing policy of non-intervention.

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Seen As a Model for Revolutionaries Everywhere

Except for the socialist Soviet Union, the suffering the Great Depression engendered was world-wide. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) fell by an estimated 15%.[13] Meanwhile, the prospering revolutionary Soviet Union had become an inspiration and model for revolutionary organizing against capitalism and colonialism across the world.  Actually, though by 1928, the Soviet Union had made an amazingly rapid recovery from the ravages of the First World War and from a horrible civil war promoted by invasions of twelve capitalist nations, its agricultural production had not recovered from war’s devastation and there were still terrible famines throughout the 1930s.

The Great Depression outside it in the capitalist run world which isolated it, if anything, helped to fuel the industrialization of the USSR and actually had a positive effect on the county’s economy. The Soviet economy did not take a hit like that of the capitalist countries who’s economies were closely interlinked. All the more so did the did the revolutionary government of Russia inspire freedom from the white man plundering colonial system world wide and stimulate the various century old European intellectual anti-capitalists movements. (The Soviet Union during the Great Depression: The Autarky Model,  Paul R. Gregory and Joel Sailors, MacMillan, UK) [13a]

America’s most erudite economist Thorstein Veblen assumed depression to be the normal condition in a business-enterprise economy, to be relieved in periods of excitation caused by stimuli not intrinsic to the system (e.g., war, expansion abroad, etc.) [134] In widest perspective, a recognized madman, Adolph Hitler, was a tool to be used to make war by the investors in war, who dominate imperial capitalist markets much of the time.[13b]

END NOTES   Chapter One – Impossibility of German Self-arming 

  1. The Versailles Treaty Section V (Yale Law School Avalon Project Documents) https://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/partv.asp;
  2. Finian Cunningham is an award-winning journalist. Originally from Belfast, Northern Ireland, He holds a Master’s degree in Agricultural Chemistry and worked as a scientific editor for the Royal Society of Chemistry in Cambridge, England, before entering a career in journalism. For over 25 years, he worked as a sub-editor and writer for The Mirror, Irish Times, Irish Independent and Britain’s Independent, among others. Now a freelance commenter, his columns appear on RT, Sputnik & Strategic Culture Foundation. He is the recipient of the Serena Shim Award for Uncompromising Integrity in Journalism (2019).
  3. Mein Kampf – work by Hitler, (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica)


“In Mein Kampf, Hitler unequivocally stated a German necessity to invade Eastward, and several passages in Mein Kampf regarding Germany’s Jewish citizens are undeniably of a genocidal nature. Mein Kampf was published in July of 1926 and sold a quarter million copies before Hitler came to power.  In it, Hitler announced his hatred of what he believed to be the world’s two evils: Communism and Judaism.”

3a. U.S. History  Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? The Great Depression, 1929-1932   The Depths of the Great Depression (OER Commons is a public digital library of open educational resources. Explore, create, and collaborate with educators around the world to improve curriculum) https://www.oercommons.org/courseware/lesson/15528/overview

  1. David Turner. “Foundations of Holocaust: Corporate America and the Fuhrer, a Love Story”  Jerusalem Post, 1/11/2013
  2. Johanningsmeier, Edward P. “1.The Trade Union Unity League: American Communists and the Transition to Industrial Unionism: 1928-1934.” Labor History 42.2 (2001): pp. 159-77. Taylor & Francis Online. Web. Dec. 2014.
  3. Devinatz, “Trade Unions As Instruments of Social Change: Does Ideology Matter?” (WorkingUSA, January 2007); Smethurst, James Edward, “The New Red Negro: The Literary Left and African American Poetry, 1930-1946,” (1999, co-editor of Left of the Color Line: Race, Radicalism, and Twentieth-Century Literature of the United States)
  4. The TUUL largely focused on building extensive industrial unions and on inter-ethnic and inter-racial organizing. Specifically, the TUUL focused on promoting the rights of marginalized African American workers: “The advancement of the workers generally is inseparably bound up with the advancement of the Negroes.” The TUUL viewed class struggle as a unifying experience for all workers. Beginning in 1928, when the TUUL the organization helped organize between 40,000 and 60,000 workers. The TUUL organized more than a dozen unions including the National Miners Union (NMU), the National Textile Workers Industrial Union, the Needle Trades Workers Industrial Union, and the Agricultural Workers Industrial League (which later became the Cannery and Agricultural Workers’ Industrial Union).Johanningsmeier, Edward P. “1.”The Trade Union Unity League: American Communists and the Transition to Industrial Unionism: 1928-1934. Labor History 42.2” (2001).Taylor & Francis Online. Web. Dec. 2014. pp.159-161. https://www.tandfonline.com/

7A. “The American Presidency Project” https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/documents/message-congress-curbing-monopolies

  1. Glynn, Sean and John Oxborrow, Interwar Britain : a social and economic history (1976) (Publisher. Allen & Unwin); “Working Class Life in England in the 1930s” Tough Nickle, MAGGS224 Updated on March 27, 2020) https://toughnickel.com/frugal-living/Working-Class-Life-in-the-1930s p. 163
  2. Samuels, Stuart, “The Left Book Club”, Journal of Contemporary History 1966 Research Article  1#2  pp. 65–86,
  3. Overy, Richard, (2010). The Twilight Years: The Paradox of Britain Between the Wars. (Penguin) ch. 2] ISBN 9781101498347
  4. Pettinger, T, “The UK economy in the 1930s”, Economics Help. Retrieved 21 April 2015


  1. The 1997 titled The Windsor File, Written by Paul Sweet, a former U.S. Foreign Service officer and historian involved in the eventual publication of the papers, details the duke’s Nazi associations and the long, ultimately unsuccessful effort at suppression; Fact-checking ‘The Crown’: Did the Duke of Windsor plot with … www.washingtonpost.com Dec 30, 2017 — It depicts the discovery of secret German documents after the war ended. … Written by Paul Sweet – https://www.nzherald.co.nz/lifestyle/the-documents-that-revealed-duke-of-windsors-nazi-ties/7RTNIFJA55SS6FLQ5B6CSFBPCM/
  2. Garraty, John, Great Depression (1986) ch1

13a. Gregory, Paul R. and Joel Sailors, The Soviet Union during the Great Depression: The Autarky Model, (Publsher Palgrave MacMillen), UK Macm

13b. Doud, Douglas, Thorstein Veblen (Washington Square Press, 1966, p. 66.



Chapter One – Impossibility of a Prostate Disarmed and Captive Nazi Germany Rearming Itself While Under British and French Armed Enforcement of Prohibitions of Versailles Treaty Law

Chapter Two – Contribution made by American capitalism to German war preparations phenomenal and crucial to German military capabilities                     Well  documented and published financial transactions of major US corporations and banks. Dow Chemical, Alcoa, Ford, GM, GE, I.T.T, Chase Manhattan, Rockefeller, DuPont. GM and Ford became principal suppliers for the forces of fascism   American President of Nazi-controlled Bank for International Settlements in Switzerland

Chapter Three – The ‘Good War’ Coverup Slogan Unmasked By Well Kept Business Records and Tax Documentation

-Nazi Counsel for the Defense at Nuremberg Trial Spoke the Truth                -=Arming Hitler’s Impoverished Low Wage Nazi Germany Was the Most Profitable Investment in History and Initially It Was Done Openly                  -=FDR Fully Aware His Cronies Were Investing in Hitler’s Military

Chapter Four – Hitler’s Rule Especially Profitable For American Corporatocracy’s Enterprises and Joint Ventures with Nazi Germany      Some Entrepreneurs Sought Fascism in America  


American Roots of Nazi Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race,

Most Investors in War Pretended to Look the Other Way Regarding Jewish Persecution Before and Many Even During the Holocaust

Chapter Six – Regarding the Economic and Political Priorities of the World’s Major Colonial Powers, the British and French Empires, the other European Empires and the Imperialist United States of America During the Rise of Fascism                                                                                                

Chapter Seven  – Peculiarities of Fascism’s and Hitler’s Mercurial Rise to Absolute Power in Germany and Its Press Coverage in the Colonial Powered Western Democracies 

Chapter Eight – The Colonial Powers at Times Openly at Times Backhandedly Assist European Fascism and Hitler’s Preparations for War                                             – Capitalist Speculative Banking Run Colonial Empires Continued to Allow and Assist Hitler To Violate the Provisions of the Versailles Treaty Meant to Prevent the Empowerment of Germany to Threaten War 

Chapter Nine – Hitler and Mussolini Permitted To Go To War on the Side of a Spanish Fascist Revolt With Merciless Bombing of Republican Spain During the Spanish Civil War July 1936-April 1939          

Chapter Ten – Final Collaborations With Hitler At Vienna and Munich Made to Appear As Only Appeasement to Avoid War. The Allowed Successful Murderous Fascist War For Spain Taken For Granted in Outright Collaboration 

Chapter Eleven – The Colonial Powers Munich Award to Hitler Brings About The Infamous Molatov-Ribbinthrop Pact – Stalin’s Last Minute Surprise Switch to Collaboration and Temporary Safety – The US Ambassador to USSR Witnessed Russian Awakening to the Ultimate Goal of the Colonial Powers in Arming and Promoting Nazi Germany 

Chapter Twelve – Second World War Begins —Germany’s Genocidal Racist Invasion of Poland  – Soviets Regain Western Ukraine and West Belarus, territory the USSR had been forced to give up in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk – Britain and France Declare War Their ‘Sitz Krieg’ Followed by Nazi ‘Blitz Krieg’ of Europe     – Hitler Led Nazi Anglo-Saxon Affinity 

Chapter Thirteen – Hitler Orders a Genocidal Racist Invasion of Russia and Extermination of Jews in the Largest Land Invasion in History     – UK Allies With the Soviet Union (An Alliance To Avoid War Previously Rejected) 

Chapter Fourteen – Peal Harbor Surprise Japanese Attack on the US Pacific Fleet and European Colonial Forces in Asia.        Germany, Italy and Axis Countries Declare War on the United States Leading segments of the power elite in the US happy to be at war again

Chapter Fifteen – The Red Army Shatters the Wehrmacht at Great Human Cost   The Falsification of History That the USA Defeated Nazi Germany During the Second World War 

Chapter Sixteen — Recapitulation and Synopsis of a Mega Murderous Double Dealing Racket of War that Engendered the Post War Anglo-American Led Genocidal World Hegemony Including a Mortally Cruel Use of Jewish Survivors of the Holocaust and the Entire Population of British Occupied Palestine 

Chapter Seventeen – – Regarding The Continued Post War Persecution of the Jews of Europe, Survivors of the Holocaust  – Civil War in British Occupied Palestine an Archetypical Colonial Crime Against Humanity, a Programed Murderous Aftermath of the Multi-nation Holocaust of European Jews                                       

Chapter Eighteen – Inhumane Heritage of An Insanely Dangerous War Investor Genocidal Control of Planet Earth Issuing from Five Centuries of Racist Colonial Capitalist Conquering and Two World Wars with Planetary Devastation and Human Decimation Threatened by the No Longer affordable and bearable Colossal Expenditure of Resources on Wars and War Preparation 

J. Jankovsky-Novak alias Jay Janson , spent eight years as Assistant Conductor of the Vietnam Symphony Orchestra in Hanoi and also toured, including with Dan Tai-son, who practiced in a Hanoi bomb shelter. The orchestra was founded by Ho Chi Minh,and it plays most of its concerts in the Opera House, a diminutive copy of the Paris Opera. In 1945, our ally Ho, from a balcony overlooking the large square and flanked by an American Major and a British Colonel, declared Vietnam independent. Everyone in the orchestra lost family, “killed by the Americans” they would mention simply, with Buddhist un-accusing acceptance. Jay can be reached at: [email protected].

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