“Revolutionary Dreaming Tramp” (On the occasion of Charlie’s Birthday- 16th April 1889)
“I consider myself a citizen of the world, an internationalist… I just happen to have been born in London, England. It could have been Burma or China or Timbuktu, I’d still be the way I am. I’d keep my first citizenship because, being an accident of birth, it wouldn’t have any real significance. But wherever I live I’ll conform to the rules, laws and regulations of that country.” (Charlie Chaplin- 1952)
Its Biographical Novel (Hasare Dukkh’- Beaming Sorrow), Marathi) first Paperback Edition was first published in 1993, dedicated to the great Charlie Chaplin, born on 16th April 1889 and which weaves together his event by event pictographic living memories, conversations communications right from child hood to his sorrowful death in 1973. Its strength lies in succeeding in portrayal of his life as if it is unfolding in front of the eyes of the readers and discovering the ‘PSYCHOLOGICAL MOORINGS OF THE TRAMP’ and flowering of his career in Six Decades. This 514 pages book has Thirty three Chapters written in Marathi and unfolds not as ‘Biography, but rather ‘Autobiography’ of Charlie Chaplin. The Novel is Titled ‘Hasare Dukhh’ meaning ‘Beaming-Grief or Sorrow’. The title is reflective of a process of transformation of Childhood Grief of Sorrow into Beaming Humor”.
Hasare Dukkha (Marathi) first Paperback Edition published in 1993. Bhalchandra Dattatray Kher has been a well known Author in Marathi with Fifteen Novels, Nineteen Biographical Novels, Seven Translated Novels (Includes Shakespearian), Five Storey Collections- Edited and three Literary Critical Reviews to his credit. Also has won three Prestigious Literary Awards and has been honored Five times by Marathi Literature Gathering, Deputy PM Yeshwantrao Chuhan, President Abdul Kalama & Japan Foundations for his Works on Hiroshima.
Has are Dukkh is a fluent Novel come biographical Book on the life of Charlie Chaplin unfolding in stages, event by event in Charlie’s life from his Childhood to his death written in Marathi Language in 1993 with subsequent 13 Editions. Eloquent and expressive, flowing language and the narrative of the Book provides us an impression that it has been penned by someone who has closely witnessed the life of Charlie Chaplin, moment by moment, at each moment of his life. Such a close account of life of one of the Greatest Comedian, Critical Humorist from a Maharashtra Author was a surprise to me. However the Author opens up the secrets of his such close interaction in his introduction to Book which he has titled as ‘Before or Prior opening of the Curtain’ .The Dramatic Novel is a product of Plunge into life of Charlie Chaplinn by three consecutive Bharde, Generations, the Charlie’s Lovers. .
Charlie, The Tramp, born in Mother ‘Hannah’s Artistic womb’
The Book provides the deep insights and understanding of co relationship between Charlie’s life as Kid and Mother Hannah’s pivotal role and how he relentlessly converted the Pain, sorrow into Humor and laughter from his age of seven as a long stretched out struggle through street plays to Silent Movies and finally memorable — Movie, “The Great Dictator”.
The First Chapter, – From Crowds into Pit), begins with Lily Harley’s (Hannah Chaplin) Stage Performance at Alder shot, Hampshire which was supported by Orchestra. She was well known as the most popular stage singer, Piano player and dancer in London. It was stge performance organized specially for soldiers. In the midst of this publicized Program, Misfortune strikes her during the concert, when it attended its glory, the same moment, Hannah lost her beautiful voice and rhythm, due to throat congestion, her health deteriorated suddenly and everything tuned into ‘CAOS”. She had to give it up and terribly Frightened, she was begs for pardon of the Stage Manager, pleads with him to save her career. It’s a dramatic moment in the life of HANNAH Chaplin. Manager proposed to continue the program by putting her Five years old Son, Little Charlie Chaplin to sing and perform. HANNAH the mother embraces little Charlie and Charlie almost ran on to the Stage and begins singing
“Jack Jones well known to everybody
Round about the market, don’t Year see.
The audience of Course Soldiers got mesmerized, by Five Years old Charlie’s singing Performance. He puts up mimicry also. The chaos ends, with glorious ending. At end of show, Charlie ran after the Manager and collected the Money and handed over to his beloved Mamma- Lily, the Hannah!
The Situation is saved but misfortune falls on Chaplin family. LILY Harley loses her voice forever and Charlie, his Half brother Sidney and Hannah were pushed into the Pit of misfortune of poverty, Pain, sorrow, Grief & Sufferings. HANNAH had to resort to laborious work of sewing clothes on ‘Paddle driven sewing Machine’ day and night for years together and which resulted into deterioration of her health and ruins of her career. The day her feet trembled, she understood that Audience, spectators and listeners only recognize the Art and not the Artist as Universal Truth. She understood that Lily Harley no longer exists, now she remains only HANA CHAPLIN, mother of two children, Charlie and Sidney. The Poverty and the overwork on Sewing Machine upto late nights began to take toll. Family had to shift to two room flat and subsequently to ‘3, Pownal Terrace”. She was left with Trunk full of he Dresses she used to wear when she was on the Horizon and the memories of old golden days.
Hannah narrates another storey regarding one more stage Performance involving a dangerous accident-disaster on Stage. The Performance participants were Hannah as well as Charlie’s Father, Mr. CHARLES, was a roaring Comedian and married to Hannah. He looked like Napoleon Bonaparte but was humorous. He stunned the world by playing serious roles also. These were enjoyable great days. During one Stage Performance in unfolding Humor studded Farce, Hannah had noticed the broken bench being used on the stage and she had warned the Stage manager about the broken Bench, but unfortunately he did not heed the warning. During the ongoing performance Hannah sat on the bench and was accompanied by other Co- Actor (CHarleys Chaplin) and the Bench cracked, collapsed, came down crashing, with their weight. Both were badly heart, but the audience and spectator conceived it as funny, humorous event as part of the farce and laughed and clapped uninterruptedly. After recounting the event, she blushed in front of Charlie and Sidney Such blushing was her distinctive specialty. Charlie appreciated and spontaneously lauded and remarked, “What an event. That’s how I will also make people laugh with joy, by showing the drama of ‘horrifying sorrow’ as humorous event, on my face, I will make people to turn it into laughter”. One can see the lasting impact such events made in Charlie’s Films re inacted with alterations to signify Union of Sorrow , Pity and Humor. Mom, Hannah’s mark on Charlie ‘The Tramp’ was profound and overwhelming. It was from his Mother Hannah he learnt the lessons of converting or transforming Sorrow into Humor.. Thus Little TRAMP was born in the Artistic Womb of Hannah Chaplin. In Charlie Chaplin’s own words, Hannah Chaplin, his mother, was a great inspiration on both his performance techniques and his outlook on life. Charlie Chaplin has attributed his own success as a pantomimic to his mother’s gifts for mimicry and observation. TRAMP turns out to be the mask, to articulate and manifest Charlie’s dreams and Phantasies struggling in his ‘Unconscious”..
Making of Charlie Chaplin, the Tramp
Stephen Wing say’” What Jerry Lewis discovered is what Chaplin knew: comedy and pathos must come from the same place: character. We cry for the Tramp not because we pity him but because laughter has made us love him. Comedy plus pathos becomes empathy. “A smile and, perhaps, a tear” bind together in perfect unity. This is the art of Charlie Chaplin
Inspired by his mother Hannah he explored and expressed his adolescent ambitions. In Chapter “Seedlings of Mahavruksh’, (Seedlings of Giant Tree) Author Bha. Da. Kher, narrates storey in Charlie’s childhood of Butcher driving Lambs to Slaughter House and one lamb escaping from the folk to save itself. Its pitiful eyesight makes Charlie weep . The lamb‘s running around and Butcher running after it was simultaneously hilarious sight and made Charlie laugh profusely. But finally the Lamb gets tired, and the gasping lamb gets caught by the Butcher. Charlie weeps and understands the coming together of the conflicting elements, Charlie abandons his play and weeps. Hannah tells him ‘Under Ṁōṇār̥chy the poor and innocent people were guillotined”. Charlie drew lifetime conclusions and characterization of the ‘Dictators and remained ‘Humanist’, to his core..
Next day, his mother Hannah introduced him to ‘Illustrated Chips’ issue, published by TOM Brown, the Comics displaying News paper in late Nineties of Nineteenth Century and Charlie was impressed. He slept while reading the Comics of Tom Brown and he had continuation of last night Dream. In the dream, the Lamb appeared in dream as a Huge animal and the Butcher was of small size pleading before the lamb to save him. Charlie was laughing in the sleep. Mother Hannah noticed it and asked him to narrate what appeared in his dream and he narrated. Hannah responded with a laugh, yes I remember, having seen a cartoon with Comment at the bottom- “The side overturned”, turning into opposite.
The little fellow with awkwardly fitting clothes, trousers, his Bowler hat, his Cane, toothbrush type moustache, Large shoes, clumsy walks and actions made his appearance funny. Tramp’s clothes and the dress code he retained till end significantly represents his organic relationship and affection with socially poor, socially outcast and ordinary common people on streets. All his performances, in street theatre, circus, and Factory- Worker scenes represent social type. Surrealist’s affection for Chaplin and his dress codes is well known for his dress code which shows up feminine features as well transgressing the gender bias!
Misfortune strikes Chaplin Family and waiting for Opportunities
Next chapter- ‘The game with Destiny’ narrates one such impactful rude event in the life of two brothers, Charlie & Sidney. Charlie, Nine Years old and Sydney Fourteen years old were subjected to another rude shock. It was Hanna’s Jerks of Insanity (1898) and sufferings from Syphilis. Sydney when engaged in a Football tournament was informed by two Nurses about Hannah’s ill health and sufferings from bouts of insanity from 1898, her violent psychotic episodes. From state of nervousness (It was tertiary stage Syphilis disease) Charlie and Sydney were terribly impacted Her condition deteriorated so much that when (she was 35) she had to be admitted to the Cane Hill Mental Asylum. She had developed a psychosis and by court order Chaplin and his brother were sent to live with their father, whom Charlie scarcely knew. Much later she was released. But Charley’s, Charlie’s father also was struck by unfortunate events. Irrespective of his Reputation as a Brilliant Comedian his fate also was sealed by Circumstances. The whole picture changed, upside down. Such virtuous and great Actor lost all Acting opportunities of acting in Plays and soon became jobless. He suffered from terrible pain and plight. As a result, their minds were tormented. He brought and clinged on to a bottle of liquor to forget the pains and terrifying prospects. Then he broke up with me, discarded me. – – What to do, how strange this world is! The ‘world’ that took them by the head, the world that hit them threw them to the feet! What solution did he have? None. Charlie, he is really nice.” It was horrific that finally Charles fell victim to this Liquor consumption and died of Liver Cirrhosis on 9th May 1901 at Lambeth, London.
After being through grave Poverty and after the tragic end of Mother, Hannah’s, voice, she was transferred to Lunatic asylum and Charlie’s had to spend life in workhouse (where Orphans, Destitute Children or Poor Children are accommodated. Charlie at innumerable times used to recollect memories of Walking on the Westminster’s Bridge to ‘Pownall Terrace’. Everyone sleeps in large dormitories). Author narrates storey of his cruel beatings from Inspector in ‘Han well School’, the forced loneliness, running around in starved conditions, and it was difficult to succeed on stage’.
After his failure to get role in ‘Cinderella’ in school he and Hannah were preparing him for acting roles. She got hold of a Farce, a Satire named, ‘Miss Priscilla’s Cat’ and he presented it in the school and His school teacher loved it, and Charlie recited it for each and every classroom and received howls of laughter and huge applause. It enormously boosted Charlie’s and Mom’s confidence . He had discovered the ‘Rhythm’ of what is play and Performance. However he had to wait for Opportunity.. Charlie was compelled to work as Florist, as a Shop Boy in Shop selling Candles and other material. After losing this job he worked under one Doctor in a dispensary as cleaner of bed pans, serving patients, cleaning windows, in a Printing Press which also he lost after falling sick. He worked in dancing Class and His exposure to these jobs enriched his experience and made him the Organic Representative of socially outcast, poor and working people.
After experiencing Hannah’s worsening health conditions due to tiring work on Sewing Machine, Charlie decided to shoulder the work load. He had joined in 1899, at the Age of Ten, ‘Eighth Lancashire Lads’ Troupe. The intensified work load, the hectic tours, the unsuitable Eating schedules impacted Charlie’s health and began suffering from ASTHAMA. His health collapsed and on Hannah’s advice he withdrew from the troupe.
TRYST WITH FRED KARNO- Hoodwinking Dream Censorship
Charlie Chaplin’s introduction to FRED KARNO cannot be termed other than ‘Tryst’. Karno is credited with developing “SKETCH COMEDY” without Dialogue and which enabled him to ‘CIRCUMVENT’ stage censorship. Charlie Chaplin & Stanley Laurel have been Named as Fred Karno’s two Men Army. Book’s Chapter 12 (Discovered Rhythm), ‘Nave Khitij’ (New Horizon), and ‘Suvarn Sinhasanachi Chahul’, (Sensing the Golden throne)’ are dedicated to surge in the life of Charlie the creative Artist. Charlie’s brother, Sidney was with Fred KARNO Group and had been perusing with Fred for Charlie who was working with Jackson’s ‘Eighth Lancashire Troup’ as Paper Boy and acquired excellent skills in Acting- Performing, as dancer and as writer as well. Charlie’s introduction to Fred Karno by Sidney in 1913 proved too is the turning point. KARNO decided to invite Charlie particularly after knowing that he played ‘BILLI’s” Role in Sherlock Homes. KARNO Company was well-known across for its Performing Troupes and FOSTERING SILENT SATIRICAL PARODIES and presentations across Europe, USA, CANADA, AFRICA. For Charlie it For Charlie it was overwhelming joyous occasion. It was unbelievable NEWS for him. However, “Pleasurable feelings were obstructed, blocked and were not allowed to sink into the psyche by sorrows densely crowded and pains and grief”. Author says, Charlie’s entire march in to future was aimed at transforming and sublimating this densely congested repressive sorrow of his Childhood in to comic and humorous forms. He intensely remembered beloved ‘Mamma’ ‘when he received the opportunity to work in the third performance of ‘Football match’ in presence of Fred Karno and due to unavailability of Harry Weldon. Charlie’s Performances crossed all boundaries of popularity in Fourteen Week’s Tour.
It was his ‘work’ experiences as Labor and struggles to Rescue Mom Hannah from poverty and her disdainful situation enabled him to transform and sublimate the instinctive Drives in innumerable ways. Charlie’s thrust into Silence Films is fully in Line with Sigmund Fred’s discovery of Dream motive to circumscribe ‘Censorship’. This enabled Charlie to work on Freudian ground of Dream sequencing by deluding the ‘Censorship’ through appropriate means of inversions, compounding.
It is noteworthy to state that the Dream fantasy in Fred Karno’s “Jimmy The Fearless” Hear, Chaplin played a ragamuffin (child, in ragged, dirty and scruffy clothes). Who embarks on a series of misadventures before waking up and realizing his exploits were all just a dream. with the dream-fantasy device of the Karno sketch Jimmy the Fearless “Chaplin revisited dream sequences—with rude awakenings—in The Bank (1915), Shoulder Arms (1918), Sunnyside (1919), The Kid (1921), The Idle Class (1921), The Gold Rush (1925), Modern Times (1936), The Great Dictator (1940) and Limelight (1952).”. It can be seen that Charlie Chaplin adopted in his Films Dream Sequencing and Fantasizing as most powerful mode of expressing Unconscious desires of Fears, Love and affections and so on and so forth.
FRED KARNO period became memorable in Charlie’s life. Charlie speaks to himself little aloud, with remembrance of first love, Hetty Kelly, when in 1908, when he acted with her in ‘Mumming Birds’. The brief encounters with her made long lasting impact on him and he recreated her Character in his female leads in his Movies. She died in Spanish Flu epidemic in 1921.
FRED KARNO association enabled Charlie’s Tramp to become legendary, iconic and favorite of all ‘Entertaining Humor and the enabled to understand underlying enormous compassion. Tramp, his outer self is exposed to spectators and audiences but he communicates his inner ‘Self’, repressed desires and wishes, to be loved and to love by articulation of hilarious events.
TRAMP and Secrets of Creative Imagination-Dream Sequencing
Author, Bha. D. Kher has provided several illustrations of Dream Sequences in his Book. To begin with his Film- Prehistoric Past,(1914) he takes the Viewers and Spectators into Ancient Past, Stone Age of the ‘PRIMAL MAN’, in the Midst of his Sleep on the Bench to communicate his desires. He has Mack Swain as his Co-Star in ‘KEYSTONE” Comedy.
Here he sees King King Low, with thousand wives and Charlie falls in love with his favorite one and the dream unfolds in most comic way.
We come across two Dream sequences in his another popular Film Gold Rush (1925). It was based on Klondike Gold Rush in Alaska, NEVADA. Of 1896. This was when Sierra Nevada, were driven to cannibalism or eating leather from their shoes. Various episodes of Cannibalism were collected and integrated. Charlie plays the role of Gold Digger. The horrifying, inhuman stories were turned and transformed into its opposite- Comedy in the shoe eating episode in the Film! One more dream sequence- Bread Roll Dance also testifies dream mode articulations by Charlie as wish fulfillment of Love and affection. The Film turned out to be most watched film in USA and Internationally.
Charlie Chaplin says “If it had not been for my mother I doubt if I could have made a success of pantomime. She was one of the greatest pantomime artists I have ever seen . . . it was through watching and listening to her that I learned not only how to express my emotions with my hands and face, but also how to observe and study people.” Charlie Chaplin says “If it had not been for my mother I doubt if I could have made a success of pantomime. She was one of the greatest pantomime artists I have ever seen . . . it was through watching and listening to her that I learned not only how to express my emotions with my hands and face, but also how to observe and study people.”
CHARLIE’S POPULARITY IN HIGH TIDES- 1931
During 1931, Mahatma Gandhi’s visit to London, on the occasion of Round Table Conference, Charlie Chaplin could see and meet him. He saw him closely and was inspired by him. Charlie mentions that the meeting was very impactful and ‘Modern Times’, inspired him to make the movie on the Dehumanizing effect of Automation. Charlie was highly open and Author has quoted a remarkable conversation. “Mahatma Gandhi did not see my films, he did not know much about me, but he is a Great Man’. Tim Durant commented,” This great man does not know about you, I am Surprised”. Charlie quickly commented, “I am sure his preoccupied with his times, and instead of ‘entertainment’ I am moved by the fact that he thought, it is more important to understand the plight of the people of India than to take it”.
Further he says,” Serving the country is his passion, hobby, entertainment, and everything of his! What but a simple man I have never seen, Simple man with small cloth on his waist, no other clothes on his body, a small garment on his shoulders. But in the shivering cold, in the midst of this so-called prestigious society in London, he truly represented poverty stricken India, keeping away from ‘Mechanical- machine Age. I discussed with him on the same topic”. Charlie was overjoyed that both were on the same Page. (376-77).
In 1931 only he had tryst with another Giant, Albert Einstein, at Los Angeles at premiere of the film City Lights, Bha. D. Kher narrates the event, “In a few moments, the theater was full. A mixed scent was wafting around the theater due to the various fragrant scents wafted by the audience. The audience was eager to see the movie “CITY LIGHTS” but this fragrant atmosphere increased the pressure on Charlie’s mind. He was very worried about whether these people would like his new silent film or not. Professor Einstein was sitting next to him.The question of his interest was also before him. Thoughts were running through my mind. At the same time the screen moved away and the ‘title’ began to appear. The first scene was said on the screen and people applauded. From the first scene, they started laughing. When they saw the boxing match, the audience laughed like crazy. The repression gradually subsided but the audience became very serious after watching the last episode of the film. Sighs and groans could be heard from the theater. Charlie looked at Einstein.His handkerchief was going to the same eyes. They were in tears. Charlie was surprised that such a great scientist could be so emotional. But at the same time, they felt satisfied. The pressure on his mind was gone. The doubts in my mind were dispelled. The audience had a huge response to his ‘silent film’. (P 368- 69).
BREAKTHROUGH -FROM SILENT FILMS TO TALKIES-TURMOIL IN CHARLIE’S PERSONAL LIFE
The Films, The Kid’, ‘The Gold Rush’, ‘City Lights’, ‘Modern Times’ and ‘The Great Dictator’ increasingly made him the most popular and successful film star of his time. From Gold Rush onwards, his Silent Films began progressively expanding on to Social and Universal Horizons. It began acquiring Critical Value expressed in Humorous Modes. Sir David Low was highly critical of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill who irrespective of criticism Named Sir David Low the Charlie Chaplin of Cartoons. Similarly Charlie Chaplin can be named as Sir David Low of Cinema. He began to translate the Social Discontent, the movements on to Screen of his Silent Films. Through sublimation of instinctive vicitudes, the tramp becomes more expressive and articulate against woos of capitalism.
The background of the Films from 1931 was ‘Great Depression’ and it’s fall out.
From entertainment to social awakening by conquest of sorrow has been the thrust of his intensions. His visit to Germany in 1931 and his overwhelming Welcome by mammoth crowds was also in contrast experienced the waves and intensity of Anti Semitism and faced protests. It made him to explore ‘his own self’, as Barber, as Worker and articulate the repressed discontent of the ‘Common man’.
These Films entirely focuses on impact of machine Age and exploitative rule of capitalism over working Classes and loss of love and affections. Charlie Chaplin’s unfurls his creative imagination through major Phantasations in two of his greatest Films, namely ‘Modern Times’ (1936) and ‘The Great Dictator’ (1940). The Film ‘Modern Times’ begins with Entry of the Flock of Lamb, the work force, entering the Factory- Industry gate, the modern communication system for Control of Working men, dehumanization of Man through Rule of ‘Capital’ in general, complete subsumption of / consumption, alienation of working capacity through machines while working on the assembly line. The class resistance through strike or other means comes under suppression and repression. So accidently Charlie is caught up in the midst of the Marching Striking Workers. The Film is comedy to its core. The Film ends, with Paulette Goddard and Charlie walking down the road to explore uncertain but hopeful future. NAZI Germany, propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels banned the Film for its hidden advocacy of Communism.
Charlie’s transition from ‘Silent Films to Spoken Silent Films” has been covered by the Author in two chapters which covered release of three major Films, Gold Rush, ‘The Circus’ and City Lights’, major breakthroughs ahead of his ‘Modern Times’ and the Vocal Film “Great Dictator’, the greatest comedian Films, political Satires, Artistic Critics in the Human History. However the period in Charlie’s personal life brought about turmoil and turbulence and fall of mountains of Grief and sorrow during the same period. It was marked by break up with his second wife LITA GREY (1926), who was casted in ‘Gold Rush and demise of his most precious, beloved Mother Hannah in 1928) Paulette Goddard, (1941) who was casted in ‘Gold Rush” and ‘The Great Dictator’.
‘THE GREAT DICTATOR’- CONFRONTATION WITH ADOLF HITLER
It was in September 1939 when spark of War was eminent and soon it developed into Inferno of World War II, even before memories of World War I were fresh and alive. Two ambitions men, one Adolf Hitler who dreamt and Phantasized World Domination through War, Weapons and destruction, who initiated the hurricane of destruction and other who wished to become messenger of World Peace, Peace for Human Race, who wished to spread the word of Love were born just with difference of Four Days! In his ‘Great Dictator’, the masterful Satire on Rise of Dictator, Adolf Hitler (Born on 20th April 1889- Four Days after Charlie) in the wake of full scale rise of Anti Semitism in NAZI GERMANY and regression to primal times. Chaplin filmed it in 1939. In the course of his portrayal of Hitler’s Phantasm to dominate the Globe in whatever way he wishes, Charlie demonstrates his skill to Create ‘Montage’ in Films like David Low and could show conflict of Inhuman Brutality and Humanity, Comedy and Tragedy. This was his First Sound Film, Movie and from Satire he comes out to deliver the memorable speech. It was Chaplin’s experiences, working as labor in Childhood, facilitated to articulate Message of World Peace.
Indulging into Day Dreams, tantalization of Adolf Hitler, his ambitions of Global Domination and destructive wishes have been covered beyond expectations by Charlie who was rigorously involved in Production and Direction of The Great Dictator. By this time he had mastered the Techniques of producing ‘Talkies’. He worked with dedication and commitment to provide fitting reply to Adolf Hitler and confront him on GLOBAL scale. He relentlessly faced all obstacles and propaganda of being Communist. He made Godard Paulette to work repeatedly, with several Retakes for number of events. It created rift between both of them and Godard use to get annoyed. He attempted to convince Godard with limited success. He emphasized regarding the significance of the Movie which will have echoes and reverberations across the Globe. In fact its impact should be so powerful and intense that it should lead to Adolf Hitler’s change of Heart.
Godard Paulette argued with Charlie, “You are right, but I am getting troubled while working. Can you think about me or No.”? Charlie replied, “While working on this Film I will only value dedication and cannot provide individual considerations. So far you have provided excellent shots, but this scene is extremely important. NAZI Soldiers while inflicting atrocities are scaresly concerned about Males or Females. We need to show this vividly. In fact the Nazi soldiers heart you badly by hitting at you Tomatoes without any remorse. Nazis humiliate you recklessly and leave the scene with dauntless and perverse laughter. You must in act this scene most expressively. Isn’t it?” Charlie appears to be task master but his aim is to defeat Hitler through most evocative Film. The Shoots and re shoots finally resulted into Godard Paulette’s separation.
Charlie delivers two distinct messages, one directed toward Freedom and against Slavery and Other for New world of peace, Love and hope for the glories Future. .
“Dictators free themselves, but they enslave the people! Now let us fight to fulfill that promise! Let us fight to free the world, to do away with national barriers, to do away with greed, with hate and intolerance. Let us fight for a world of reason, a world where science and progress will lead to all men’s happiness”.
Charlie’s second message for world peace is addressed to Hannah- “Look up, Hannah. The soul of man has been given wings, and at last he is beginning to fly. He is flying into the rainbow, into the light of hope, into the future, the glorious future that belongs to you, to me, and to all of us.”
Sigmund Freud and Charlie Chaplin
Sigmund Freud, watched Chaplin’s Films could easily discern how Charlie provided ‘Self Expressions’ in his Films. Freud, the Psychoanalyst and Art Critique, with detailed analysis of Da Vinci’s ‘Mona Lisa’, had no difficulty in interpretation of Charlie Chaplin and his Silent Films studded with Imagery emanation from his ‘Unconscious’, as Fantasies and Dreams.
He says, “You know for instance, in the last few days Charlie Chaplin has been in Vienna. Almost I, too, would have seen him, but it was too cold for him here and he left again quickly. He is undoubtedly, a great artist; certainly he always portrays one and the same figure; only the weakly, poor, helpless, clumsy youngster for whom, however, things turn out well in the end. Now do you think that for this role he has to forget his own ego? On the contrary, he always plays only himself as he was in his early dismal youth. He cannot get away from those impressions and to this day he obtains for himself the compensation for the frustrations and humiliations of that past period of his life. He is, so-to-speak, an exceptionally simple and transparent case. The idea that the achievements of artists are intimately bound up with their childhood memories, impressions, repressions and disappointments, has already brought us much enlightenment and has, for that reason, become very precious to us”. (Freud, 27/ 03/1931).
It is noticeable that Freud counts him amongst Great Artists. He says, “He is, so-to-speak, an exceptionally simple and transparent case”. Freud understood Chaplin well by seeing his Silent Films and plays which were casted by ‘hoodwinking’ the Censorship’ like the manifest content of ‘Dreams’. He empathized with Charlie as a Classical case, Model or Rather “ideational mimetic.” He argued an artwork could cause a powerful exchange of energy between viewer and work of art, similar to the experience of empathy.
Author, Bha. D. Kher has provided the ‘Dream Sequences’ in his Films with few Images. We have illustrated the Imagery of Unfolding Dream. Important area in Charlie’s life was his breakthrough in Films particularly after 1931. Illustration, of Modern Times’ or ‘Great Dictator’, where in his imagination transgressed into Social, Production and Political areas and covering ‘Humanitarianism’. It demonstrated his critical approach to Capitalism, the dehumanization, exploitation and compulsion on Working People. His role as Assembly worker, tightening the bolts, he looses out in ‘Labor Process’ and is sucked into System.
THE END OF ‘DREAMLAND’
Charlie Chaplin migrated to Switzerland in 1953 and Stayed with his Fourth Wife Oona till end of his life in 1977. He had acquired 37 Acre Estate at, Manor De Ban, in small Swiss Town of Crosier-Sur- Vesey. He, 37-acre estate, Manor de Ban, in the small Swiss Riviera town of Corsier-sur-Vevey, about 55 miles northeast of Geneva,
The last Chapter of this book recounts the memories of this Character Charlie Chaplin in last Twenty Five Years, after migration to Switzerland. The End of the Book Reading Charlie Chaplin’s character in such persuasive and heartfelt emotional language is remarkable. The chapter brings to the fore sweet memories as well as sorrowful journey to his end destination.
It sums up Charley’s memories from 1953, of Oona and their Children, his appreciation of Swiss people, visit to Circus, which evoked Charlie’s memories of ‘The Circus’ and visits to his New house by Jawaharlal Nehru and Chou En Lai.
During Chou En-Lai’s visit to Switzerland, he had expressed his desire to see Charlie. Chua En Lay had arrived with delegation in It is noticeable that Charlie during conversation he praised and appreciated Jawaharlal Nehru. Charlie says, (He speaks from heart and he is speaks with conviction. He is a simply a thorough Gentleman. Charlie during conversation specifically highlighted that his Daughter Indira is energetic, smart and Lively and distinct future she, I am confident, she will hold the Fort. Chou En Lai sarcastically remarked, “Now there is no Thorne now. It is democracy now”. Charlie still continued, she will be in charge of India’s throne. It only shows Charlie’s ability to evaluate individuals.
The last Chapter provides excellent detailed discussions and conversations on Film Techniques by English Reporter ‘Fredric Sand’ about Charlie’s series of old & new Films and influences his mother on them. He also questioned him regarding his wife Oona’s participation in any of the upcoming Films. Charlie responded with a statement that, “ She did not marry me to acquire glamour as Film actress but to support me” Fredric asked Oona, “ What precious gift did you receive from Charlie which you have deeply preserved?” She said, “Liveliness and Vibrancy” and “Gift of Laughter”.
Time does not wait for anyone and so not even for Charlie. It was 1977, when he went to “Lake Geneva” trip on wheelchair. But was pre occupied by his intense desire to prepare his ’Last Wishes’.
When Oona, heard from his she understood the ‘footsteps of time’. He told her by all means I wish to complete my new film on ‘Jujus Christ’. I must complete it to fulfill Mammas wishes and now can afford to forget the one on Napoleon.
Next night he had a dream about a party at ‘Beverly Hills’ and during dance he saw one leading Man acting as if he flying like a bird and the man jumped into the valley. Charlie woke up. Oona asked him. What happened to the man . Charlie says, “I had replaced him and I was flying”. We are reminded of such Scenes in his Charlie’s Silent Films.
Charlie was in the bed with eyes closed. He opened his eyes and said today is Christmas and I am keen to prepare film in the memory of Mama. Again he fell asleep. Oona called Doctor. He said Charlie is having ‘CHIRA- NIDRA’, he is no more The man who had committed to prepare a Film on Jesus in memory of Hannah he took a flight to heaven in Hannah’s memory. He completed the Dream Sequence in his last wishes.
The Author despite, not being a Psychoanalyst, has answered – Was Charlie, the Tramp’ was Embodiment of Chaplin himself? Hannah, the mother occupying the central core of his psyche and how Charlie all along his life succeeded in sublimating his Instinctual desires into Art Work. Second question he has answered is by demonstrating Charlie as the Organic Intellectual of the poor, toiling masses has shaped his Art work to represent them despite not being a Formal Marxist or a Communist.
Anil Pundlik Gokhale is an Engineer by profession. As a non regular writer on political literature I have always been attempting to integrate Psychology and Marxism. I have recently published books ‘Condensation And Condescension In Dreams And History: Essay – From Sigmund Freud To E P Thompson’ by Author House London. Psychoanalysis & A- Historical Story of GENGHIS KHAN, Author House- London.