The Merciless Realpolitik Crimes Of Serial War Criminal Henry Kissinger (1923-2023)


The world has just marked the passing of serial war criminal Henry Kissinger (1923-2023) who devoted most of his 100 years to supporting pragmatic and cold-blooded realpolitik exercise of deadly power around the world by the US that has invaded all but 3 countries in the world, invaded 52 countries since WW2, and otherwise achieved regime change in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. His worst crime was to normalize such crimes for America and its Western allies.  

Wikipedia concisely summarized Kissinger’s life thus: “Kissinger pioneered the policy of détente with the Soviet Union, orchestrated an opening of relations with China, engaged in “shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East to end the Yom Kippur War, and negotiated the Paris Peace Accords, which ended American involvement in the Vietnam War. For the latter, he was awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize under controversial circumstances.  Kissinger has also been associated with controversial U.S. policies, including its bombing of Cambodia; involvement in the 1973 Chilean coup d’état; and support for Argentina’s military junta in its Dirty War, Indonesia in its invasion of East Timor, and Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War, despite a genocide being perpetrated by Pakistan. After leaving government, Kissinger founded Kissinger Associates an international geopolitical consulting firm. He authored over a dozen books on diplomatic history and international relations” [1].

However it is useful to systematically address Kissinger’s life from the perspective of all the billions of victims of the cold-blooded Big Power realpolitik that he espoused. Apart from inevitable border spats, most countries in the world have not invaded other countries. In stark contrast, the US has invaded 72 countries (52 since WW2) [2- 12], has committed 469 invasions from 1798 onwards [6, 7], committed 251 invasions since 1991 [6, 7],  and has 800 military bases in over 70 countries [13]. The US actively spies on and subverts all countries [14], even deceives, subverts and  spies on  its most craven ally Australia  [14, 15], and indeed supplies raw intelligence on Australians to Apartheid Israel [16].

As succinctly set out below, Henry Kissinger (27 May 1923- 29 November 2023) had a life of killing people that  had 4 phases: (1) WW2 and post-WW2 military intelligence service pre-Nixon/Ford (1945-1947), (2) being the go-to conservative American  expert on the “legitimacy” of  US and Big Power realpolitik actions (1950-1969),  (3) real power under President Nixon and thence President Ford as 56th US Secretary of State (September 22, 1973 – January 20, 1977) and as 7th US National Security Adviser (January 20, 1969 – November 3, 1975), and (4) post-Nixon/Ford as a powerful corporate and political influencer (20 January 20, 1977 – 29 November 2023).

(1). Kissinger was a US soldier in the 1940s, especially in intelligence in WW2 and in post-WW2 de-Nazification of starving Occupied Germany flooded with German refugees from the former Nazi empire (1943-1947).

Kissinger was born in Germany in 1923 but his Jewish German parents fled Nazi Germany to the US in 1938. Kissinger became a US citizen in 1943 and served in the US Army in Europe, notably in military intelligence because of his fluent German. He was involved in running the German city of Krefeld and thence in hunting down former Nazis, of whom 4 were tried  and executed  for their crimes. He was further  involved in de-Nazification in Germany [1]. The immediate post-war period in Germany was one of deadly food shortages for the populace and for German prisoners of war. Ethnic Germans had fled from the advancing Red Army in 1944 and 1945, and with the defeat of Nazi German armies there was  deadly mass population transfer of  14.6 million ethnic Germans from Czechoslovakia, Poland and eastern Europe (USSR, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, and the Baltic states). About 7 million came from Poland and USSR territory, and about 3 million from Czechoslovakia. Estimates of deaths associated with these mass population expulsions range from 0.5 million to 2.5 million [17-20] as compared to the total of 9 million German deaths in the 1941-1950 German Holocaust and German Genocide ultimately due to genocidal Nazi militarism and its WW2 and post-WW2 consequences [20].  The German population suffered severe food shortages after WW2 [19-22].

The US was militarily involved  in the following countries in the 1940s: Philippines (1948-1954), Germany (1941-1948), Yugoslavia (1946), Italy (1941-1945), Morocco (1941-1945), France (1941-1945), Algeria (1941-1945), Tunisia (1941-1945), Libya (1941-1945), Egypt (1941-1945), India (1941-1945), Burma (1941-1945), Micronesia (1941-1945), Papua New Guinea (1941-1945), Solomon Islands (1941-1945), Vanuatu (1941-1945), Austria (1941-1945), Hungary (1941-1945), Japan (1941-1945), Iran (1946), Uruguay (1947), and Greece (1947-1949) [2].  In this period the US had hegemony over Latin America that was mostly ruled by US-backed dictatorships [4].

The US in WW2 , thence as an Occupier, and otherwise through subversion was involved in installing regimes of its liking  in the following countries in the 1940s: Japan (1941-1952), Germany (1941- 1949), Italy (1941-1946), France (1944-1946), Belgium (1944-1945), Netherlands (1944-1945), Philippines (1944-1945), Austria (1945-1955), South Korea (1945-1953), Greece (1947-1948), Costa Rica (1948), Albania (1949-1953), Syria (1949), and China (unsuccessful attempts 1949-1971)  [23, 24].

Entry of the US into WW2 after Pearl Harbor (December 1941) sealed the fate of genocidally racist and imperialist Nazi Germany with huge American industrial and  military support for the UK and USSR (that with 27 million dead  bore the brunt of the war), the bombing destruction of German and Japanese cities, and the eventual Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied France. Major US corporations were involved in the rise to power of Nazism in Germany and German re-armament [25-27]. The British-sought US war against Japan and thence (critically) against Germany resulted in a huge wartime economic boom  for America that was domestically free from the horrors of war [4, 28, 29].  Deaths from violence and deprivation are given in brackets as follows for WW2 in Europe (40 million), WW2 in Asia (50 million), the  Allied destruction by bombing of whole cities notably Caen in France, Hamburg, Berlin, and Dresden in Germany, and most Japanese cities, notably Tokyo and atomic-bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1 million deaths), and the Allied-imposed WW2 Bengali Holocaust  (WW2 Indian Holocaust, WW2 Bengal Famine; 6-7 million Indians  deliberately starved to death in Bengal, Bihar, Odisha and Assam  in 1942-1945 for strategic reasons by US ally Britain with food-denying Australian and US complicity – any Japanese forces overcoming British and US forces in Assam would encounter a food-free North East India) [4, 29-38]. Food is a crucial resource in war [22] and Lara Feigel has written: “According to the euphemistically named “Hunger Plan”, developed by German minister Herbert Backe, the conquest of Russia would render Germany self-sufficient. The Germans would starve millions of Russians to death and turn large parts of the country into a giant farm. Backe’s plan was partly successful, in that millions of Russians starved. However, as the battle dragged on, the German soldiers could barely feed themselves, let alone send enough home to feed Germany. Hitler was faced with a food crisis, and it was partly as a solution to this strategic problem that he decided to exterminate the Jews” [20, 39].

(2). Kissinger goes to Harvard, graduates BA and thence PhD and becomes the go-to conservative American  expert on the “legitimacy” of  US and Big Power actions (1947-1969).

After the US Army  Kissinger studied at Harvard from 1947, eventually gaining a  BA in 1950 and thence  a PhD in 1954  for a subsequently published thesis entitled “Peace, Legitimacy, and the Equilibrium (A Study of the Statesmanship of Castlereagh and Metternich)”in  which he set out his pragmatic view of Big Power diplomacy: “Legitimacy as used here should not be confused with justice. It means no more than an international agreement about the nature of workable arrangements and about the permissible aims and methods of foreign policy”. From then on Kissinger became an increasingly influential conservative foreign policy expert.  His PhD thesis was published in 1957 as “A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace 1812–1822“. From 1956 to 1958, Kissinger was director of the Special Studies Project for the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (1956-1958), director of the Harvard Defense Studies Program (1958-1971), and was associate director of the Center for International Affairs which he co-founded in 1958. Kissinger became a consultant to key bodies including the Operations Research Office, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of State, and the RAND Corporation. Kissinger became foreign policy advisor to the presidential nomination campaigns of Nelson Rockefeller in 1960, 1964, and 1968, and thence joined the successful presidential   campaign for Richard Nixon. On Nixon’s election in 1969 Kissinger was appointed as National Security Advisor [1].

In 2015, 200 years after the 1815  Congress of Vienna re-organized post-Napoleonic Europe, the Canadian Sheldon Chumir Foundation for Ethics in Leadership  in collaboration with a number of leading policy organisations and universities hosted a lavish Congress of Vienna 2015 to explore policies for a stable world order that unfortunately was opened by mass murderer Henry Kissinger and generated a  Draft Report for eventual presentation to the UN [40, 41]  From a scientific and humanitarian  perspective  the Kissinger-informed Draft Report was soft, wishy-washy, myopic and predicated on the Big Power- and Big Money-dominated status quo that presently kills 7.4 million people annually [as of 2020] through deprivation and threatens to wipe out most of Humanity and the Biosphere [4]. I concluded a detailed, systematic and documented  critique of the Draft Report thus:One suspects that if he were still alive, Canadian humanitarian Sheldon Chumir would be very disappointed with the weakness of the Congress of Vienna 2015 Draft Report and its commitment to the disastrous, One Percenter-determined, “let them eat cake”   status quo. The Awful Truth is that  world is acutely threatened by nuclear weapons (that could wipe out most of Humanity and the Biosphere at any time), poverty (that kills 17 million people each year [as of 2003]) and by man-made climate change from greenhouse gas pollution (pollutants from carbon burning kill 7 million people each year but unaddressed man-made climate change may kill 10 billion people this century in an already worsening climate genocide)” [42].  

The period of the 1950s and 1960s in which Kissinger became an increasingly important conservative foreign policy “influencer” in the “corridors of power” saw  massive projection of “America first” US military power across the world. The US was militarily involved  in the following countries in the 1950s and 1960s: American forces deployed against Americans (1967, 1968), China (1950-1953, 1960s), Korea (1950-1953), Panama (1958, 1964), Philippines (1948-1954), Cuba (1962), Puerto Rico (1950), Dominican Republic (1965-1966), Germany (1945 onwards US military presence), Guatemala (1954; 1966-1967), Egypt (1956, 1967), Palestine (1967- onwards), Iran (1953), Vietnam (1954; 1960-1975), Lebanon (1958), Iraq (1958), Laos (1962-1975), Indonesia (1960s, 1965), Cambodia (1969-1975), Oman (1970), Vietnam (1954-1975), Zaire (Congo) (1960 onwards).

The most deadly and dangerous of these Kissinger-style “US exercises of legitimacy” in the 1950s and 1960s were as follows (deaths from violence and war-imposed deprivation in brackets):  the Korean War (2 million, with all buildings destroyed by US bombing); China (sanctions and exclusions from 1949 to 1972 contributed to the 1960-1962 Great Leap Forward famine that killed 30 million); Cuba (the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis  could have destroyed the World); Israel and Palestine ( Israeli acquisition of nuclear weapons by the mid-1960s meant increased Zionist control of the US, and increased US support for Apartheid Israel against the brutally Occupied Indigenous Palestinians and against neighbouring and other Arab and Muslim countries); Iran (the overthrow of democracy by the US in 1953 led to the 1979 Revolution and the Iraq-Iran War with 1 million killed and 2.1 million excess deaths in 1980-1988); Vietnam (in 1954 the US violated the Geneva Agreement leading to 2 decades of war with 1955-1975 excess deaths totalling  11.9 million); Laos (US violations from the 1960 coup to massive bombing in 1964-1975 was associated with 1.1 million excess deaths); Cambodia (US violation with the 1970 coup and horrendous  bombing led to the Cambodian Genocide in which  1.5 million died and  a 1965-1988 excess mortality of 3.5 million); Indonesia ( the US and its lackey Australia supported Islamist rebels in the 1960s and thence the anti-socialist 1965 coup in which 1 million Chinese, socialists and intellectuals were murdered with a 1965-1999 excess mortality of 33 million); Congo (Zaire) (US removal of Lumumba  in 1960 led to 1960-1997 Mobutu era excess deaths of 16.5 million and 1994-2005 civil war excess deaths of 10.1 million); Philippines (US-backed Marcos dictatorship associated with poverty and excess mortality); and Latin America (US hegemony, support for violent dictatorships and invasions with violent  regime change in Latin America,  notably Dominican Republic in 1965, supressed democracy and permitted deadly poverty).

Through subversion and violence the US was involved trying to install regimes to its liking  in the following countries in the 1950s and 1960s:  Burma aka Myanmar  1950–1953, China (1950-1953 and thence until 1979), Egypt (1952), Guatemala (1952, 1954), Iran (1952, 1953), Syria (1956, 1957), Indonesia (1957-1959, early1960s, 1965-1967), Iraq (1959, 1963), South Vietnam (1959-1963, and thence continually until 1975), Cuba (1959-1962 and thence sanctions still in place), Cambodia (1959- 1975), Congo aka Zaire ( 1960-1965), Laos (1960), Dominican Republic (1961, 1965), Brazil (1964), and Palestine (1967 onwards;  Occupation by US-backed Apartheid Israel) [4, 23]. In 1952-1990 the  CIA-backed  Gladio terrorist organization  committed dirty tricks and terrorist acts in Europe from 1952-1990 that would be blamed on Communists  [43]. Philip Agee in his personal account  “Inside the company: CIA Diary” described similar CIA operations in Ecuador [44]. 

(3). Kissinger finally in charge of the killing as US National Security Adviser (1969 – 1975) and US Secretary of State (1973 – 1977).

Under President Richard Nixon (20 January 1969 – 9 August 1974) and thence President Gerald Ford (9 August 1974 – 20 January 1977), Kissinger was 7th US National Security Adviser (January 20, 1969 – November 3, 1975) and the 56th US Secretary of State (September 22, 1973 – January 20, 1977).

In the period 1969-1977 in which Kissinger was formally in government  the US invaded the following countries: Vietnam (1955-1975), Laos (1962-1975), Cambodia (1969-1975), Oman (1970), and  Angola (1976-1992). However this period saw the US also crucially involved by dint of global power, weaponry, and advisers  in major atrocities in Bangladesh, the Congo and Timor Leste, ongoing Apartheid  in South Africa and Israeli-occupied Palestine, and  suppression of democracy by US-backed civil wars, coups and deadly dictatorships around the world.    

Because 50,000 Americans died in the conflict, Kissinger is best known for his direct involvement in the Vietnam War (1955-1975 excess deaths totalling 11.9 million) that spilled over into Laos (US violations from the 1960 coup to massive bombing in 1964-1975 was associated with 1.1 million excess deaths) and Cambodia (US violation with the 1970 coup and horrendous  bombing led to the Cambodian Genocide in which  1.5 million died and  a 1965-1988 excess mortality of 3.5 million). Kissinger’s cold-blooded and deadly duplicity in Vietnam War peace negotiations that prolonged the already-lost war  has been described by Christopher Hitchens in “The Trial of Henry Kissinger” [45].  Kissinger still believed that with more Congressional funding the South Vietnamese could have prevailed.

Hitchens also described how in 1971 the US backed the Pakistani atrocities in Bangladesh (3 million men and boys killed in a “gendercide” and 0.3 million women and girls raped) and how the US with a huge navy in the Bay of Bengal threatened India with nuclear weapons when India  was forced to intervene because of 10 million Bangladeshi refugees fleeing to India [4, 45].

In this period the US backed deadly civil wars in Angola (1955-2005 excess deaths 8.5 million), the Congo (1960-1997 Mobutu era excess deaths of 16.5 million), Ethiopia (1972-1974 excess deaths 1.0 million), Eritrea (1962-1993 excess deaths 1.0 million), and Sudan (1955-2005 excess deaths 12.4 million), the entrenched corrupt and deadly Suharto dictatorship in Indonesia (1965-1999 excess deaths from deprivation totalled  33 million), the 1975 Indonesian invasion of Timor Leste (200,000 deaths out of a population of 600,000), Afghanistan (1979-1989 excess deaths 2.9 million),  and suppression of democracy in Latin America by backing dictatorships, training death squads, and backing coups [4]. For a selection of riveting personal insights into these Kissinger-complicit  atrocities  see [44-48]. 

Kissinger-complicit, US-backed coups  in this period included those in Cambodia (1970-1979), Chile (1970-1973; 30,000 arrested, 3,000 killed), Bolivia (1971), Ethiopia (1974-1991), Australia (1975; non-violent and by US and UK subversion), Angola (1975-1991), Timor Leste (1975-1999; 200,000 killed out of a population of 600,000), Argentina (1976; 22,000 – 30,000 people were killed or disappeared in the “Dirty War”), and  Afghanistan (1979-1992) [23, 24].

The only light in this dark story was Kissinger supporting the no-brainers of decreasing nuclear  tensions with the USSR and US recognition of the Peoples Republic of China (full diplomatic relations established in 1979). Otherwise Kissinger left a legacy paradigm of deadly “might is right” exercise of US power that was followed after Kissinger’s departure from government in 1977 by successive US administrations in the bloody decades to come, operating with supportive realpolitik advice from the “eminent” Kissinger.   

(4). Kissinger as an expert on strategic and deadly exercise of American power (1977-2023).  

After Kissinger left office he taught at Georgetown University for several years and then formed the consulting firms Kissinger Associates, and Kissinger McLarty Associates. Over the years he was on the boards of powerful media, mining, and aerospace corporations. In particular he was a key executive of China Ventures. Kissinger served as the 22nd Chancellor of the College of William and Mary from 2000 to 2005 (preceded by UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher). In November 2002, he was appointed by President George W. Bush to chair the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States to investigate the 9/11 atrocity, but resigned a month later over conflicts of interest. He lent his “eminence” to support US atrocities including the destruction  of a liberal Afghanistan (1978), US subversion and suppression of democracy in Latin America and Africa, and the exploitation of the 9/11 atrocity to drive a US War on Terror that in reality was a US War on Muslims in 20 countries, most notably Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria , Yemen, Somalia, Libya and Palestine.

Deaths from violence and imposed deprivation totalled 3 million (Iraq, 2003 onwards), 5 million (Iraq, 1990 onwards), and 7 million (Afghanistan, 2002-2021), noting that no Iraqis or Afghans were involved in the 9/11 atrocity according to the “lying Bush official US version of 9/11”. 32  million Muslims died from violence (5 million) and deprivation (27 million) in 20 countries invaded by the US Alliance since the US Government’s 9/11 false flag atrocity that killed 3,000 innocent Americans [4]  

Countries invaded by the US (1977 onwards): Panama (1989), Philippines (1989; 2002), Cuba (US sanctions, 1958 onwards), Honduras (1983-1989, 2009 coup), Serbia (1992-1994; 1999), Guatemala (2023), El Salvador (1981-1992), Libya (1981; 1986; 1989; 2011), Egypt (2013), Iran (1980, 1984; 1987-1988; continuing sanctions), Lebanon (1982-1984), (45) Iraq (1990-1991; 1990-2003; 1998; 2003 onwards), Angola (1976-1992), Grenada (1983-1984), Bolivia (1986), Virgin Islands (1989), Liberia (1990; 1997; 2003), Saudi Arabia (1990-1991), Kuwait (1991), Haiti (1991), Somalia (1992-1994; 2006), Bosnia (1993-1995), Congo (Zaire) (1996-1997), Albania (1997), Sudan (1998), Afghanistan (1978-1990;  2001-2021; assets still seized with deadly consequences), Yemen (2000; 2002- present), Macedonia (2001), Colombia (2002- present), Pakistan (2005- 2021), Syria (2008; 2011- present), Uganda (2011), Mali (2013), Niger (2013), and Palestine (continuing occupation by US-backed Apartheid Israel).

US involvement in regime change (1977 onwards): Cuba (sanctions 1958 onwards and failed invasion), Paraguay (1954-1989), Afghanistan (1978-1992; 2001-2021), El Salvador (1979-1992), Iran (sanctions 1979 onwards), Poland (1980-1989), Chad (1981-1982), Nicaragua (1981-1990), Grenada (1983), Fiji (1987, 2000), Panama (1989-1994), Iraq (1991, 1992-1996, 2003-), Haiti (1991; 1994-1995; 2004), Guatemala (1960-1996), Zaire (1996-1997), Yugoslavia (Serbia) (2000), Venezuela (2000-2023 involving sanctions and failed invasion), Kyrgyzstan (2005), Occupied Palestinian Territories (2006-2007), Honduras (2009), Syria (2005-2009; 2012 – present), Australia (2010), Libya (2011),  Bolivia (2019), Colombia (1964 – present).

Final comments and conclusions.

Henry Kissinger has bloody record of pragmatic support of merciless  US power against the weak over his decades of adult life that has wreaked havoc across the world. With the US as the world’s dominant military and economic  power since WW2 , this violent imposition of US hegemony has contributed to a Global Avoidable Mortality Holocaust  in which about 1,500 million people (overwhelmingly in the Developing World and mostly children) have died avoidably from deprivation since 1950 [4]. 1950-2005 avoidable deaths from deprivation in countries variously occupied by the US in the post-WW2 era total 82 million, a death toll approaching that of all the deaths in WW2 [4].

The conduct of the exceptionalist United States (population 341 million) stands in sharp contrast to that of India (population 1,429 million).  While the US describes itself as “the world’s greatest democracy”, India is undoubtedly the “world’s  biggest democracy”. Brilliant Indian writer Arundhati Roy (acclaimed as “one of the greatest writers of our time” by Naomi Klein)  has trenchantly criticized  the present state of Indian democracy for corruption, Hindutva fanaticism, Kashmir, and laws such as the National Register of Citizens (NRC) and the Citizens Amendment Act  (CAA) discriminating against Muslims and thus  threatening  the secular and democratic Constitution  that has served communal harmony in India so well [49]. Yet despite these present shortcomings post-Independence India (per capita GDP $2,600) has not invaded any other country whereas the United States (per capita GDP $80,400) [51] has been assessed as having invaded every country on earth except for Andorra, Liechtenstein and Bhutan [9], and having invaded 52 countries since WW2 [2].   

Henry Kissinger’s horrible contribution to America was to normalize for the US and the West the deadly abuses summarized above. Indeed in a 2015 poll of US international relations scholars asked “Who was the most effective U.S. Secretary of State in the past 50 years?”, Henry Kissinger  topped the pack with 32.3% support [50].  

Kissinger’s  normalization of evil means that while Humanity is existentially  threatened by (a) climate change and (b) nuclear  weapons [51],  the West simply looks on as (a) the  2023 United Nations Climate Change Conference known as COP 28 is presently hosted by the UAE which is among the world’s leading fossil fuel exporters, and (b) an out-of-control nuclear terrorist and genocidally racist Apartheid Israel reduces Gaza to rubble in its ongoing Palestinian Genocide (in just 2 months killing 22,000 Indigenous Palestinians including 9,000 children, wounding 40,000, and rendering most of the 2.3 million Gazans homeless and mercilessly deprived of water, food, shelter, medical requisites and medical attention) [52].

However  a glimmer of hope that Kindness and Truth (the core ethos of Humanity) may eventually prevail is provided by the wonderful School Strikers who have left their class rooms to demonstrate  for climate change action now and immediate cessation of the mass murder of Occupied Palestinian  children.  In the impoverished Developing World,  that is subject to deadly Kissinger-style American  realpolitik, presently 7.4 million people die avoidably from deprivation each year  and most of the dead are children [4]. The world contains  2 kinds of people, those who oppose the active and passive killing of children and the “others”. At this time as Apartheid Israel continues to massacre starving and helpless children, the “others” also include America and its depraved Western allies  like Australia who refuse to support an immediate Ceasefire and an end to the genocidal killing in Gaza. Humanity cannot tolerate such ongoing violent massacres and the  horrendous Global Avoidable Mortality Holocaust. Decent people around the world must  (a) inform   everyone they can, and (b) urge and apply stringent Boycotts, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) against all people, politicians, parties, collectives, corporations and countries supporting the child-killing and murderously greedy “others”.


[1]. “Henry Kissinger”, Wikipedia: .

[2]. Gideon Polya, “The US Has Invaded 70 Nations Since 1776 – Make 4 July Independence From America Day”, Countercurrents, 5 July, 2013: .

[3]. William Blum, “Rogue State: A guide to the world’s only superpower”, Common Courage Press, 2005.

[4]. Gideon Polya, “Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950”, Korsgaard Publishing, 2nd edition, 2021.

[5]. Dr Zoltan Grossman, “From Wounded Knee to Libya : a century of U.S. military interventions”,  ” . .

[6]. Benjamin Norton, “US launched 251 military interventions since 1991, and 469 since 1798”, Multipolista, 13 September 2022: .

[7]. Congressional Research Service, “Instances of use of United States armed forces abroad, 1798-2022”, 22 March 2022: .

[8]. “World Population Review, “How many countries has the US invaded as of 2023”: .

[9]. Blake Stillwell, “These are the only 3 countries America hasn’t invaded [Andorra, Bhutan and Liechtenstein]”, We are the mighty: .

[10]. Christopher Kelly and Stuart Laycock, “America Invades: How We’ve Invaded Or Been Militarily Involved With Almost Every Country on Earth”, Book Publishers Network, 2015.

[11]. Gideon Polya , “Why Australia Should Quit  Military Links With Serial War Criminal America”, Countercurrents, 28 January 2023: .

[12]. “Stop state terrorism”: .

[13]. David Vine, “Where in the world is the U.S. military?”, Politico, July/August 2015: .

[14]. Richard Kerbaj,“The Secret History of the Five Eyes”, Blink, 2022.

[15]. Brian Toohey, “Secret. The making of Australia’s security state”, Melbourne University Press, 2019.

[16]. Philip Dorling, “US shares raw intelligence on Australians with Israel”, Sydney Morning Herald, 12 September 2013: .

[17]. “Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)”, Wikipedia:.

[18]. “Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia”, Wikipedia: .

[19]. Victor Sebestyen, “1946. The making of the modern world”, Pantheon, 2014.

[20]. Gideon Polya,  “VE Day 70th Anniversary, German Holocaust,  Bengali Holocaust And Global Avoidable Mortality Holocaust”, Countercurrents,9 May, 2015: .

[21]. “Food in occupied Germany”, Wikipedia:

[22]. Lizzie Collingham, “The Taste of War: World War 2 and the battle for food”, Penguin, 2011.

[23]. “United States involvement in regime change”, Wikipedia: .

[24]. William Blum, “Rogue State: A Guide to the World’s Only Superpower”, Common Courage Press; 3rd edition, 2005.

[25]. J. Jankovsky-Novak alias Jay Janson, “WWII & Holocaust Could Never Have Happened Without American Corporations Investing & Joint Venturing with Hitler’s Poor Nazi Germany” published on Countercurrents  e.g.  Chapter 2, Countercurrents, 1 April 2023: .

[26]. Anthony B. Sutton, “Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler: The Astonishing True Story of the American Financiers Who Bankrolled the Nazis”, Clairview Books, 2012.

[27]. Ben Aris and Duncan Campbell, “How Bush’s grandfather helped Hitler’s rise to power”, Guardian, 26 September 2004: .

[28]. James Rusbridger and Eric Nave, “Betrayal at Pearl Harbor: How Churchill lured Roosevelt into World War II”, Summit, 1991.

[29]. Gideon Polya, “Jane Austen and the Black Hole of British History. Colonial rapacity, holocaust denial and the global crisis in biological sustainability”, 3rd edition, Korsgaard Publishing, 2022.

[30]. Gideon Polya in Soren Korsgaard, editor, “The Most Dangerous Book Ever Published: Deadly Deception Exposed”, Korsgaard Publishing, 2020.

[31]. Winston Churchill, speech to the House of Commons about Indians (1935); 1. Hansard of the House of Commons, Winston Churchill speech, Hansard Vol. 302, cols. 1920-21, 1935.

[32]. Gideon Polya, “Economist Mahima Khanna,   Cambridge Stevenson PrizeAnd Dire Indian Poverty”,  Countercurrents, 20 November, 2011: .

[33]. Gideon Polya, “Australia And Britain Killed 6-7 Million Indians In WW2 Bengal Famine”,  Countercurrents, 29 September, 2011: .

[34]. “Bengali Holocaust (WW2 Bengal Famine) writings of Gideon Polya”, Gideon Polya: .

[35].“Report genocide”: .

[36]. Gideon Polya, “Britain Robbed India Of $45 Trillion & Thence 1.8 Billion Indians Died From Deprivation”, Countercurrents, 18 December 2018: .

[37]. Gideon Polya, “US-imposed Post-9/11 Muslim Holocaust & Muslim Genocide”, Korsgaard Publishing, 2020.  

[38]. Gideon Polya, “Racist Mainstream Ignores “US-Imposed Post-9/11 Muslim Holocaust & Muslim Genocide”, Countercurrents, 17 July 2020: .

[39]. Lara Feigel, “The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food by Lizzie Collingham – review”,  UK Guardian, 5 February 2011: .

[40]. Innovation, Knowledge and Development (IKD)  , “Congress of Vienna”, 8 October 2015: .

[41]. Congress of Vienna 2015, “In search of principles for a stable world order. Discussion and recommendations”: .

[42]. Gideon Polya, “Congress Of Vienna 2015 For Global Stability Fails To Address Key, Existential Nuclear, Poverty And Climate Change Threats”, Countercurrents, 12 January 2016: .

[43]. “Operation Gladio”, Wikipedia: .

[44]. Philip Agee, “Inside the company: CIA Diary”,  Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1975.

[45]. Christopher Hitchens, “The Trial of Henry Kissinger”, Verso, USA, 2001.

[46]. John Perkins, “Confessions of an Economic Hit Man”, Plume 2005.

[47]. Victor Marchetti, “The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence”, Knopf, 1974.

[48]. Jacobo Timerman, “Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number”, University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

[49]. Arundhati Roy, “Azadi. Fascism, Fiction and Freedom in the Time of the Virus”, Penguin, 2020.

[50]. TRIP Snap Poll III: Seven Questions on Current Global Issues for International Relations Scholars, January 25, 2015: .

[51]. “List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita”, Wikipedia: .

[52]. Gideon Polya, “Climate Crisis, Climate Genocide & Solutions”, Korsgaard Publishing, 2020.

[53]. Gideon Polya, “Israeli, Zionist & US Alliance Lies Hide Genocidal Intent Of Apartheid Israel’s 7 October False Flag & Ongoing Gaza Massacre”, Countercurrents, 1 December 2023: .

Dr Gideon Polya taught science students at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia over 4 decades. He published some 130 works in a 5 decade scientific career, notably a huge pharmacological reference text “Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds”. He has also published “Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950” (2007, 2022) and “Jane Austen and the Black Hole of British History” (1998, 2008, 2023). He has recently published “US-imposed Post-9-11 Muslim Holocaust & Muslim Genocide” (2020), and “Climate Crisis, Climate Genocide & Solutions” (2020), and contributed to Soren Korsgaard (editor) “The Most Dangerous Book Ever Published – Dangerous Deception Exposed!” (2020). For images of Gideon Polya’s huge paintings for the Planet, Peace, Mother and Child see:  .

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