India-China Border Conflict: Dangerous, Divisive Games of  BJP in the Northeast


Courtesy: “Historically, people in the north-east haven’t worshipped Ram as a deity…Hundreds of saffron activists quietly hit the streets to bring the people of the north-east on the Ram page, with the BJP’s battle-cry of ‘Jai Shri Ram…’ Almost 13,000 kayrakartas RSS and its sister outfits in the north-east tried to reach as many households as possible and connect them to the Ayodhya mandir movement”, said its report, Apr 3, 2022.

The  different and diverse socio-political-cultural flora and fauna of  Northeast are sought to be mowed down so as to sow majoritarian homogeneity.    

The dangerous divisive games,  ironically in the name of One India, of BJP led by Modi-Shah duo are leading to many socio-political, ethnic, religious, cultural,linguistic tensions, all being aggravated by various policies of the Modi regime, including the CAA.

“Earlier, the Congress’ slogan for North-East was ‘Look East’, which the PM Modi changed to ‘Act East’, said Home Minister Amit Shah.  Is this the essence of  their Act East’ policy?   

Modi’s precept “this is not an era of war,” should be applied to China and Pakistan as well: Normalization, not chauvinism, is the need of the hour… That was the theme of Part-4 of the series on the India-China Border Conflict.

Instead of resolving the India-China Border Conflict by peaceful, negotiated settlement, with give and take, dangerous divisive games played by BJP in the region are creating new problems, complicating and aggravating the situation. The CAA was one such, not the only, policy.  

In this Part-5, we shall examine whether the practice of the Modi Establishment is in accord with his proclaimed policy…or is it otherwise, aggravating conflicts into internal and civil wars in the sensitive border zone, close to LAC.


***                             ***

Unlike Congress, “Modi govt brought progress, peace to Northeast”: Claims and reality

Union Home Minister Amit Shah began his recent tour of  North-East with an attack on Congress and its policies. Elections are due this year in many states there – Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura, Meghalaya… Addressing a rally on Jan 6 in Manipur, he said: We transformed Congress slogan of  ‘Look East Policy’ into ‘Act East Policy’.  

It is true that the Congress, over decades, messed up the Northeast with wrong policies that aggravated insurgencies in the region. Instead of resolving the issues by peaceful, political methods, it had imposed a police-military rule, unleashed draconian laws like AFSPA, deployed around 4-5 lakh armed forces in the region for decades. They appointed Governors who were former military, intelligence, and police officers, and they called the shots. Border smuggling and drug trafficking continued, often with their connivance.

Civilian rule in northeast was only a facade, meant to cultivate and use local cronies who penetrated and operated in the name of regional political parties, and swindled huge budgets even while the region, home for scores of  tribes, languished in backwardness.

It is true that BJP outdid the Congress in all this ever since PM Modi arrived in 2014. That is the essence of the  ‘Act East Policy’, Amit Shah mentioned, being implemented in the past 8 years.  

Whenever there was a change at the Centre, major part of the same regional establishments  merely changed colors, with defections, splits and toppling games, the malcontents remaining the same: As a result, now BJP tops the northeast politics of the ruling classes; it had unseated the Left rule of decades even in Tripura.

The Modi-Shah duo is indulging in reckless policies, including divide and rule they are best at. There were political processes, launched under Congress rule, that were more deceptive than real  in tackling insurgencies, that changed in forms and intensity. BJP led by Modi carried forward the policies with their own imprint. The Naga agreement, much of it shrouded in mystery and secrecy, is a case in point.

Amit Shah on Jan 6 in Manipur said:

“There was a time when the entire Northeast was known for insurgent groups, but today its known for peace and progress…Amit Shah said the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) in Nagaland is being lifted gradually…Compared to 2014, there was a 74% decrease in the number of terror incidents in 2021. Deaths of security personnel and citizens have decreased sharply…”

The peace claims of Amit Shah are more due to the Covid, and related  restrictions, it is felt by observers. They need to be verified. See this report by

“.. after a gap of over two years, protests against the controversial CAA resumed across Assam” in August 2022. “Protests by members of the All Assam Students’ Union (AASU), a part of the North East Students’ Organisation (NESO) was held in all the district headquarters of the state amid heavy security arrangements,” reported,August 18, 2022:


The students’ organisation also demanded an end to the problem of radicalisation, a permanent solution to the foreigners’ issue and the complete removal of the Armed Forces Special Power Act (AFSPA) from the entire Northeast.

Following the call from the North East Students’ Organisation (NESO), the All Arunachal Pradesh Students’ Union (AAPSU) on December 11, 2020,  observed the ‘Black Day’ as a mark of protest against the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA),2019.

BJP’s divisive policies, and the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) stirred up many controversies, contradictions, animosities  and protests, including in Arunachal Pradesh, and other sensitive areas of Northeast. Assam witnessed widespread anti-CAA agitation led by different organisations in late 2019 and early 2020..Protests against CAA turned violent in the region in December 2019, with five persons being killed in police firing, recalled Aug 17, 2022.

The agitators also demanded constitutional safeguards for the indigenous population of Tripura, resolving the problem of Chakma-Hajong refugees in Arunachal Pradesh and a separate recruitment board for the youths of the Northeast.

 The protests against CAA were held in all the Northeastern states.

 The contentious CAA, it may be recalled, seeks to provide Indian citizenship to Hindus, Jains, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Parsis entering India on or before December 31, 2014 from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan after five years of residence here. Only Muslims are omitted. Assam witnessed widespread anti-CAA agitation led by different organisations in late 2019 and early 2020, leading to the deaths of five people.

Arunachal Pradesh, adjoining the LAC with China, too is again in turmoil, aggravated by CAA, as per the report:

The Northeast Students’ Organisation (NESO) and All Arunachal Pradesh Students’ Union (AAPSU) also staged a dharna here in Itanagar. AAPSU has called on the government to resolve the Chakma-Hajong refugee issue and those immigrants from the neighboring country of Myanmar. AAPSU president Dozi Tana Tara stated that the illegal settlement of Chakmas and the Hajongs is a direct threat to Arunachal Pradesh. (More on it later).

Arunachal unit NESO co-ordinator Pritam Wai Sonam stated that the issue of Chakma and Hajong refugees in the state needs immediate attention and should be solved at the earliest. Wai demanded that the centre come up with a policy to safeguard the rights of people with regards to land and resources.

Festering border and other disputes within India, particularly between Northeast states

Amit Shah’s claims of peace in Northeast, by resolving all disputes, are not based on facts given by his own government : the Parliament was informed on Jul 29, 2021 that there are a total of seven inter-state border disputes at present in the country, most of them involving sensitive border states.

Let alone tackle the border dispute with China, there are festering territorial and border disputes between states in the northeast: Assam, riven with so many ethnic and other conflicts within the state,  has border disputes with Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Meghalaya. The disputes are so  bitter that there were clashes between rival police forces, have resulted in the loss of life, livelihood and property. Another border state, Himachal Pradesh, has disputes with Ladakh and Haryana. Most of these states have been under BJP rule, with a so-called double-engine,but the disputes remain unresolved: Maharashtra-Karnataka,often as now ruled by BJP and its allies, have the oldest and bitter dispute involving rival claims over hundreds of villages. There were violent incidents too.

There are demands for bifurcations like a ‘separate state of Frontier Nagaland’ and a ‘separate tribal state’ within Tripura, though all are ruled by BJP and its allies.  There is an ‘existing impasse between the Centre and the NSCN-IM over the Naga peace talks with the latter insisting on a separate flag and constitution’; BJP ally Sangma has reservations about a Uniform Civil Code in Meghalaya, a tribal state. (Times of India, Editorial Jan 12, 2023.)

The border question between the two States of  India and China also has this dimension of ethnic issues; after all on both sides of LAC, there are people. China had proposed resolution of the dispute based on historical aspects as well as ‘existing actualities’.

***                         ***

Rs 3.45-lakh crore  for ‘development or for strategic preparations against China? 

Lauding the work of the party in the past 8 years, Shah said that the BJP government worked hard towards the development … He laid foundation stone of several development projects and said:  PM Modi has increased the connectivity (both aerial and road) among the northeastern states. It is notable that in the name of development, everything  including State machinery and huge budgets are deployed for the political ends of the BJP. See this:

He said that in the last eight years, the Modi government spent Rs 3.45-lakh crore for various development projects in the Northeast,  which equals the cumulative spending in the 25 years before that. He also revealed: “In just 8 years, PM Modi has visited Manipur 51 times..”  It reveals BJP’s political and electoral intent.

In fact, Such huge expenditures  are not for peaceful development, not  for  connectivity (both aerial and road) of the people in northeast. We have noted earlier how 70 smart villages are being developed by US, its agencies and NGOs, as part of their own strategy.  They  are thus more strategic preparations against China, than for local people’s needs: We often see reports from Northeast how people suffer during floods, how the old, the sick and pregnant women suffer for want of connectivity.

Road transport minister Nitin Gadkari had said the project would cost around Rs 27,000 crore.. ( Times of India, Dec 19, 2022):

‘Eye on China, govt plans a ‘frontier highway’, Times reported: The government, in the next five years, will build a new highway in Arunachal Pradesh that will run close to the India-Tibet-China-Myanmar border. At some locations, the ‘frontier highway’ will be as close as 20km from the international border. The road designated as NH-913, will come as a big boost for seamless movement of defence forces and equipment to the border ..The 1,748-km long two-lane road has huge strategic significance..

They were not post-Galwan, as interpreted. Long before Galwan clash, planning for the road was begun at least in 2016 by Modi regime. Later in July 2018, the home ministry gave input for providing connectivity to certain areas…

Defence ministry clears projects worth Rs 85,000 crore”  

In terms of cost, projects are valued at around Rs 85,000 crore…projects for the Army received the most number of clearances, with land force equipment coming to a total of Rs 50,000 crore. The most significant of them is AON for Project Zorawar, which will cost about Rs 16,000 crore (tanks etc with AI). The project has been named after Zorawar Singh Kahluria — a military general who served under Jammu’s Raja Gulab Singh — known as the ‘conquerer of Ladakh’. (, 22 December, 2022 ). Ladakh is part of LAC dispute with China.

This project is being shown as for development, for connectivity of people.

Arms lobby is happy: A statement by the Defence Ministry said 21 proposals, worth Rs 82,127 crore (97.4 per cent), are approved for procurement from indigenous sources…and Defence has been opened up for private sector by UPA, and now Modi executes the projects. The media is controlled by Big Business, and they show it all as  for development.

All projects contain, it is well known, a huge share of cut-backs meant for the cronies, middlemen, who also double up as contractors and transporters. A BJP contractor of Karnataka had committed suicide blaming BJP ministers demanding 40% commission. It is an example of how corruption is in-built in projects. It is like the ‘development’ by East India Company, meant to loot people and resources of the region.

Northeast has lakhs of Union government staff, including those of armed and para military forces, and facilities created for them are all accounted as for the region.

***                        ***

“Christian population on the rise in Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur” : BJP leader

That is the title of a report by, Mar 09, 2017:

“ Union Minister Kiran Rijiju had sparked a controversy after referring to the growing Christian numbers in Arunachal Pradesh – his home state — and linking them to conversions.

“Opposition parties had slammed Rijiju for his comments and the Congress had accused the BJP of “converting Arunachal into a Hindu state”. (That was in the past. Perhaps now Congress and ‘secular’ Rahul, who latest advised people to greet each other with Jai Shri Ram would not say that.)

Why rake up now, that too in a sensitive border area? Sangh parivar citing a “Christian Sonia Gandhi” heading the Congress is well known.

Thus both major parties of the ruling classes injected a communal twist – this in a border  area with a  sensitive situation and riven with a festering border dispute.

Even while allowing the (Christian) US and its NGOs to penetrate interior areas of  North East and fish in troubled waters, and while holding  joint military exercises with US close to the disputed Mac Mahon Line, the BJP is extending its communal and divisive politics in the sensitive border region. This needs to be understood.

The report added:

However, there is no clear official reason for the rise in the Christian population in these states. While Rijiju cited religious conversion as a possible reason, some experts say this could be because of migration.

This is not a solitary report. It is one promoted by the Indian State. A prominent think tank brought out a report, cited by Swarajya,  a magazine close to the BJP and the Establishment:

“ The Centre For Policy Studies (CPS) has published its latest note on the Religion Data Census of 2011. The note shows how the demographics of the northeast have drastically changed in the last century.

“Northeast India forms a major region of Christian concentration in India today. Of the 2.78 crore Christians counted in 2011, 78 lakh are in the northeast (including Assam). This is the largest concentration of Christians in India after the coastal region stretching from southern Tamil Nadu and Kerala to coastal Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra.” (Swarajya Staff-Aug 23, 2016)  (

The report was published in 2016 August, during Modi’s first turn as PM. It was nothing new as the caption itself suggested: Demography Watch: How Northeast India Was Christianised In The Last 100 Years. Obviously, it was a development of the British colonial era, raked up now with ulterior motives.

The CPS study says: “Assam, like Meghalaya, had acquired a significant Christian presence already in 1901. About 22,000 Christians were counted in the state at the time. These early Christians were mostly from the migrant tribes in the tea plantations of upper Assam.” Most of the plantations were owned by the British (Christians), it is well known, and conversions were related to them.

The report says:

“ Christianisation of Nagaland happened mostly in the decades leading to and following the Independence. The share of Christians in the population of the state was around two percent in 1911, which increased to 13 percent in 1931 and to 46 percent in 1951. By 1991, the share of Christians reached above 87 percent…Of the Scheduled Tribes population of 10.61 lakh counted in that year, 10.44 lakh were Christians, and they formed more than 98 percent of the population of the Scheduled Tribes.”

That was the trend in other states, but not of Arunachal, which we  shall see later.

***                               ***

Communalizing political issues : A dangerous game

 Kashmir is sought to be reduced into a Islamic communal issue. It is well known, it was related to the demand of Right of Self-determination; JKLF among others championed it; Kashmiris including Hindu pandits were leading the movement.The Congress over decades suppressed them, as also their Sufi and secular character. Islamic forces were promoted, funded, aided to distort the movement, Pakistan contributing its own part. Jihadist elements were patronized. Elections were brazenly rigged, middle-ground political forces like National Conference, Hurriyat and PDP were outwitted, more so by the Modi-Shah duo in recent past; they are cultivating new cronies from panchayat level. The dangerous results are there for all to see.

So it happened in Punjab too: Autonomy was the original demand of Anandpur sahib Resolution. But their movement was split and crushed by aiding, promoting, funding Bhindranwales and Khalistanis.

Communal and Caste movements are promoted by the Indian State to counter  aspirations of people and various ethnic, nationality movements. They disturbed and distorted the whole polity, and endless strife and violence resulted.

This strategy has been activated in Northeast too, and the results would be no different. BJP injected Hindutva into Northeast, and trying to use Buddhism too.

***                       ***

Sowing saffron in the north east”

That is the caption of a report by,  Dec 14, 2014.

Rijuju claimed, “Hindu population is reducing in India because Hindus never convert people.” What’s the reality? This report gives some information. See the illustration given below, and  details of  State-funded activities. It says:

“Largely populated by tribes, the Seven Sisters have always attracted proselytisers. With the ongoing debate on conversions, the work of the RSS and its affiliates in the north east raises questions about their attempts to bring tribal animists into the Hindu fold.”  

“ A committee setup by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) in 2005 headed by human rights activist Avdhash Kaushal submitted a report that found communalisation rampant in Ekal Vidyalayas and in their textual materials and curriculum. The committee surveyed Ekal schools in Jharkhand’s Singhbhum district and in Assam’s Tinsukia and Dibrugarh districts.

“These Ekal Vidyalayas run by FTS, as the committee found, were even funded by the then BJP-led NDA government. The funds sanctioned were not only from the HRD Ministry but also the Ministries of Rural Development, Tribal Welfare, Science and Technology and Women & Child Development…”

Not only they are aplenty in Northeast in general, they are there in sensitive LAC zones:

“ Take the case of the balwadis run by VKA (Vanvasi Kalyan Ashrams) in many parts of Arunachal. They work on similar lines to Ekal Vidyalayas that function as a pre-school of sorts. A visit to these balwadis in Itanagar, Ziro and Pasighat revealed a lack of interest in running such schools professionally. Many are run out of shacks or abandoned structures and basic amenities were absent…

“ But perhaps, as Mahato himself admits, the idea is not to run these ‘institutions’ professionally. “We don’t want to run these schools as professionals. Schools, balwadis or health centres that we run are all set up to create a way into the community. Then we work with the community to counter Christian missionaries,” he says.

All these activities areshown as part of development, part of Act East, with huge spending by the State.


Courtesy:,  Dec 14, 2014

***                                   ***

Arunachal Pradesh: Messing up demography?

The situation in Arunachal was different from other areas of Northeast. The CPS report says:

“Arunachal Pradesh remained beyond the reach of the Church until 1971..,”

Why was it so until 1971? The report obfuscates the reality when it says, “ until 1971 when the area was brought under civil administration.”

It implies the area was under military administration. Why?

It is notable that data was given for other states was since 1901, but not so for Arunachal. Why?

The first-ever census in Arunachal was conducted in 1961.

That is  one year before the 1962 war that had this disputed area as one of its theaters. China, it is well known, calls the area as a part of “South Tibet”. It had little to do with British India, which conducted decennial census, which was simply not possible for Tibet.

The border dispute in Northeast sector of LAC was explained in Part-1 of the series:

The erstwhile NEFA (presently Arunachal Pradesh), until 1951 was known by the Tibetan name Tawang, and despite the claimed McMahon Line, it remained under Tibetan occupation since 1914 and they collected the civil revenue as well.

After Independence, the government of India too assured Tibet that it would adjust the border in Tawang in favour of Tibet. Despite this assurance,  in 1951, as the negotiations for 17-Point Agreement between China and Tibet started in Beijing, India  occupied Tawang ignoring Tibetan protests:

To  be precise, on February 12, 1951, Major R. Khating forcibly evicted the Tibetan administration from Tawang and sought to establish India’s control that was never accepted by China.

Thus it is a post-British possession, and added after the Constitution of 1950 (Article- 1defines Indian territory)  came into effect.

A.S. Bhasin, former Director of the History department of MEA, wrote:

“The northern part of India’s bequeathed border with Tibet was haphazardly fixed by Henry McMahon on a map without surveys. Not only was such a border neither delineated nor demarcated, the utterances of its very architect that the same was to be surveyed, delineated and demarcated fell on deaf ears…”

“The McMahon Line, settled with the Tibetans in 1914, is a treaty line. The Notes exchanged between the parties do not define it. They drew a line on a map with a thick nib dipped in red ink, leaving room for dispute. Neither side has a right to alter it unilaterally. Nehru did so admittedly. He confidently informed the Lok Sabha on September 23, 1959, that in one area “it was not considered a good line and it was varied afterwards by us, by the Government of India..”.

It was only later in 1951 that Tibet had signed a 17-point Agreement with new China, the PRC (that emerged in 1949 October) re-affirming China’s sovereignty over Tibet. Dalai Lama was party to this. The National Assembly of Tibet asked the Govt to accept that agreement, under which TAR (Tibet Autonomous Region) was an autonomous part of China.

PRC, which had civilian-revenue administration there, conducted census in 1954 that included TAR and its population of 12.7 lakh people.  Not to lag very much behind, India conducted a  first-ever census  in NEFA in 1961, i.e., when Indian civilian administration was non-existent there.  Arunachal Pradesh was not yet formed by then.

The dispute is all the more complicated because India not only treats the contentious Mc Mahaon Line as the border, but claims  even areas north of that.  It’s well known that China never – never since it was drawn a century ago – recognized the Line and that is the dispute.

Thus it is a century-old dispute, not one created by Communist China. Occasionally China protests when India carries on some activity in Arunachal that China deems as provocative, such as the US developing 70 smart villages in disputed Tawang of Arunachal. 

Because it had nothing to do with the British, or  British India, “Arunachal Pradesh remained beyond the reach of the Church until 1971..”

This is evaded by the study that however highlights rise in christian population subsequently; this needs further analysis  :

***                  ***

The data and the interpretation are dubious  


Source: Hindustan Times

“  Since then, the share of Christians has been rising rapidly from decade to decade and has reached above 30 percent now. Many of the tribes of Arunachal Pradesh have now acquired large Christian majorities, ” says the above report .

Rise in proportion of Christians in Arunachal is quite high, “alarming”,  as per such reports. They constituted less than 1% in 1971, and reached 30% by  2011,  as per the (Hindustan Times) graph. The figures are expressed in percentage terms to exaggerate the data, as can be seen. Absolute figures need to be looked into.

Lies, damn lies, and (such statistics) ..that is the order given by Mark Twain.

In Arunachal Pradesh, the biggest state in the region, the share of ‘Other Religions’ category which comprised of two-thirds of Arunachalis in 1971 dropped to 26% in 2011 from as much as 64% in four decades ago. ‘Other religions’ include tribal faiths including the indigenous Donyi-Polo (Sun and Moon) whose followers worship the celestial objects.

“People tend to forget India’s history” :  Rijiju

Rijiju  said, “Arunachal Pradesh is an integral part of India. People tend to forget India’s history.” (Republic TV, December, 2022).

Do people elsewhere, say in UP, forget history that they were part of India ?  Why does he need to assert the way he did?

Efforts were made to integrate the  region into India, beginning with its designation as Arunachal, as a union territory in 1972 and then given the status of State on as late as 20 February 1987.. We have already noted the observations about this area by AS Bhasin, Director of History Department, MEA.   

Arunachal: Changing demography 

China (PRC), conducted census in 1954 that included TAR (Tibet Autonomous Region) and its population of 12.7 lakh people. NEFA had a population of 3.37 lakh in 1961(see below).

India officially acknowledges there are differing perceptions where exactly the LAC lay, and local people move across. It may be noted that the first-ever census in NEFA, named later as  ‘Arunachal’,  was conducted amid  turmoil in 1961, even as a dispute was brewing into a war in 1962. The population data (wikipedia, cites official data)  is as follows:


Arunachal population
Year Pop. ±%
1961 337,000
1971 468,000 +38.9%
1981 632,000 +35.0%
1991 865,000 +36.9%
2001 1,098,000 +26.9%
2011 1,484,000 +35.2%
First ever census was carried out in 1961.
Source: Census of India[1]

Absolute figures, not percentages, need to be looked into. Arunachal Pradesh has a population of only around 15 lakh in 2011, comparable to that of a town. In comparison,  Uttarakhand’s population  was 100 lakh plus in 2011. Both are border states adjoining China.

Arunachal is a state relatively large (83743  sq km, larger than Uttarakhand 53483 sq km). So its Density of population is about 17 per sq km (lowest population density of any state in India)…far below the Indian average of 370 pop./km2 but significantly higher than similarly mountainous Ladakh, also a disputed area. Arunachal’s density in fact went up  from around 4 per sq. Km in 1961.

The population went up presumably by immigration that was welcome (for India), preferably from non-Tibetan groups,  into the NEFA territory bordering China. They are more from adjoining states of northeast; and Christians from there were welcome in the past. More migration was allowed and  presumably encouraged. But now Modi-led BJP rakes it up and exaggerates.

Religion in Arunachal Pradesh
Religion 2001[5] 2011[6]
Christianity 205,548 418,732
Hinduism 379,935 401,876
Buddhism 143,028 162,815
Islam 20,675 27,045
Sikhism 1,865 3,287
Jainism 216 771
Other (mostly Donyi-Polo) 337,399 362,553
Not stated n/a 6,648
Total 1,097,968 1,383,727

(Source: Wikipedia)

“Others” in census data refers to indigenous religious traditions, such as Donyi-Polo (in the Tani area) or Rangfrah (further east).

Tibetan Buddhism predominates in the districts of TawangWest Kameng, and isolated regions adjacent to TibetTheravada Buddhism is practiced by groups living near the Burmese border like Changlang.

Many (such and other) people in the Northeast, more so in Arunachal, don’t accept they are Indians. Thus census data in remote and disputed areas is difficult, and the data is unreliable, given ethnic divide, and literacy gap.

The problem of Chakmas

Amit Shah claimed peace was restored in Northeast by Modi regime. He was touring there in the new year for elections ahead.

But reality is the BJP unleashed new problems and tensions, even before old problems including insurgencies were resolved.The problem of Chakmas is one such. And BJP is playing up controversies, that too in Arunachal, lying along the LAC. That needs a separate treatment.

***                           ***

The author is a political observer who contributed to

Articles in this series by the author are listed below:

See also India-China war at 60 : A Review, 01/12/2022

India-China conflict in the Global Context:  Part-1  (25/12/2022)

 and part- 2 on The Arunachal sector ( 27/12/2022)

Part- 3 : India China Border Dispute: Some Myths (03/01/2023)

Part- 4 : Modi’s precept “this is not an era of war,” should be applied to China and Pakistan as well : Normalization, not chauvinism, is the need of the hour (09/01/2023)

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