Currently the events of Lynching, communal- religious confrontations, and the rapidly spreading Political fire of hatred in India WITH Yell & Screaming in the name of Hindu Patriotism are bound to raise concerns about historical upswing of Religious Hysteria and Hatred just in course of less than a decade. Also it is marked by accompanied by it is the: Phenomena of Religious confrontations carried out in the name of Mythical Heroes AND condemned Villains, Ram and Ravana, as pioneers of Modern Patriotism and National Traitors from the Archaic past. The religious majoritarian in recent years, is being used for promotion of genocide and ethnic cleansing that reminds us of the one in Nazi Germany. Psychosis in standard term is regarded as a collection of set of symptoms affecting the mind, wherein contact with reality is lost. During Psychotic Episode the individual becomes the victim of anxiety and delusions and his actions are directed towards social objects which are unreal. They can be identified as Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, hallucinations, delusions and paranoia resulting into insane actions.
Hundreds of Hindu- Muslim clashes in India are well recorded from 1713 but Mr. Paul R. Brass; Oxford University Press (USA- August 8, 1936 to May 31, 2022) and others who carried out historical studies and analysis have opinioned that revivalist organizations are responsible for such a long drawn out history. However V.D. Savarkar’s role by way of defining ‘Hindu Ideology of Nationhood’ being prominent in escalation its scope and magnitude. Few Sadhus led by one Abhiram Das were identified as having placed Rama’s Idol inside the central dome of the Babri Masjid in December 1949. This incident changed the course of conflict to Universal and individualized levels providing a meaning to the Conflict as between Two Archetypes, Ram & Ravana drawn from Archaic Mythology. Its value in evoking the Mythical conflict and terrible fallouts from ‘Collective Unconscious’ into unfolding of Modern History are being witnessed by the World around. The Janmabhoomi Ayodhya campaign and now Gyanavyapi in fomenting the phenomena of rapid upsurge of Religious Hysteria and hatred..
The Babri event changed the course of Ram Janmabhoomi Ayodhya campaign and subsequent political History in India. The Bickering conflict since then over three decades now is marked by several heart breaking events of Babri demolition followed by riots leading to death of 2000 people, riots in 2002, genocide of number of people transporting cows at the mercy of Cow vigilantes, proliferation and enactment of ‘Love Jihad, Law” all in the name of Ram is mounting proliferation of ‘Blind Faith’. The graph is mounting in the name of Hindu Nationalism, Hatred of Muslim community in particular, identified as equivalent to Ravana’s followers. The Hindu fundamentalists led by VHP, Hindu Mahasabha BJP and Bajrang Dal are leading the campaign in the Name of Ultra Patriotism. Archetypes of Rama, Maruti and Ravana are at the Centre stage of such conflicts over last few decades. Can such phenomena be identified as specific type or segment of Mass Psychosis or mass Hysteria?
Also visible in last decade was bloodied onslaught carried out by revivalist Sanatan Organizations against Rationalists. Consecutive murder of three rationalist activists that raises deeper questions. The murders of Kalburgi, Pansare and Dabholkar were executed in cold blood can be identified as illustrations of Individual Psychosis. The hypnotherapist who tried to study the causes of disease which led to killings is said to have realized that clinical hypnosis did not work on most of his patients. Hindus have numerous gurus, deities, temples, practices and celebrations. There is no monolithic Hindu orthodoxy that aims to dominate the world however last few decades have focused on Gods such as Ram, the Archetype which provides solution to deal with Anxiety, Fears and Delusions of ripping up of ‘Faith’ by rationalists. These illustrations brings us closer to the nature and character of ‘Psychosis.
Nineteenth Century Revival of Hinduism as Sanatan Dharm
‘Manusmruti’ as documented in 500 BCE is conglomeration of and synthesis of ‘Arth & Dharma Sutras which include legal processes, duties, rights, laws, conduct and established in defense of sinking, virtues based on the concept of Creation of the world, Source of dharma and four classes (Chaturvarn) and law of Karma, rebirth and final liberation. These sacred laws are the founding principles of ‘Sanatan dharma’ and conglomeration of rituals. Also RSS wanted this Constitution to be replaced by Manusmriti or Manu Code which is known for its derogatory and inhuman references to Sudras, Untouchables and women. By demanding promulgation of the laws of Manu in independent India RSS was simply following its mentor, philosopher and guide VD Savarkar. Revivalism from Archaic is on rise and In April 2023.
Resurrection of the Principles of Sanatan Dharma and revival of Hindu Religion was name for Hinduism as a religion in order to avoid having to use the term “Hindu” which is of non-native Persian Origin. Sanatan Organization have several times Proposed ‘Manusmruti’ as Ideal Constitution for India and need to replace the Present day Indian Constitution.It is interesting to note that Mahatma Gandi identified himself as Sanatani Hindu. However he stressed on Evolution of Hinduism.” My religion is Hinduism which for me is Religion of Humanity and includes the best of all religions …”. (M.K. Gandhi. Harijan: March 8, 1942…”). Tushar Gandhi , Mahatma Gandhi’s great grandson Quotes him further, “The Hinduism of my conception is no narrow creed. It is a grand evolutionary process as ancient as t. as ancient as time, and embraces the teachings of Zoaraster, Moses, Christ, Mohammad, Nanak and other prophets” – M.K. Gandhi. Harijan: March 8, 1942…
Mr. Tushar Gandhi makes brilliant comments, “ There were two practitioners of Hinduism during Bapu’s time, one was Mohandas Gandhi, who practised … Sanatan Hindu Dharma comprising of truth, love and compassion. The other was Nathuram Godse, who proclaimed himself to be a Sanatani Hindu and practised a brutal, vengeful and and savagely murderous corruption, which is today called Hindutva. There is a vast difference between the two, we must never forget”. With this Tushar Gandhi has brought out the conflicting trends, Humanism and Psychotic by identifying Nathuram Godse as Psychopathic character. The phenomenon is also ingrained into the phenomena of rapidly galloping and unprecedented Mental illnesses and disorders across India over a decade.
We can also recollect the reports of Confrontation between Mr. Mohandas Pai and Kailash Satyarathi, the Nobel Prize winner who had put up FACEBOOK comment-that India could very soon become the epicenter of depressive and anxiety disorders in the world. It already has the highest number of mental illness cases in the world.
DAIGRAMATIC REPRESENTATION OF FREUD’S ARTICLE-The Loss of Reality in Neurosis and Psychosis (Freud, 1924)
I have done the Diagrammatic representation of excerpts from Freud’s above Title article on Surge of Psychosis which parallels Karl Marx’s theory of Value- Essence & value existence. The Destruction of Reality is carried out by dragging the Ego away and substitute Reality compounded with Mythological Elements is projected by the ‘ID’, which is in Driver’s seat. We will substantiate it at latter stage as similar to Karl Marx’s concept of Value essence and Value manifestation or existence and the Inversion Process.
INDIA EPICENTRE OF MENTAL DISEASES & PSYCHOSIS?
To carry forward the debate we have few highlights and Bullet Points about Mental Health and rapid spread of increase in mental disorders in India. Below is the authentic statistics for India.
In December 2017, India President Ram Nath Kovind warned of a potential “mental health epidemic” in India, with 10 per cent of its 1.3 billion-strong population having suffered from one or more mental health problems.(2) In India, the treatment gap (the number of people with an illness who need treatment but do not get it) is 70 to 92 per cent, depending on the state. (3) There are only 5,000 psychiatrists in India, or 0.3 for every 100,000 persons, and less than 2,000 clinical psychologists (0.07 per 100,000). To compare, the ratio of psychiatrists in developed countries is 6.6 per 100,000 and the average number of mental hospitals globally is 0.04 per 100,000 persons, compared to 0.004 in India. 1 out of 3 in India suffers from depression. (4) According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report, India has the highest number of depressed individuals in the world. This means that one out of three individuals in India suffers from depression.
Despite variations in the design of studies, available data from the Indian studies suggests that about 20% of the adult population in the community is affected with one or the other psychiatric disorder How many people suffer from mental illness 2020 in India? According to the numbers, 56 million Indians suffer from depression and another 38 million Indians suffer from anxiety disorders. As per findings indicated that there are 1.5 crore people suffering from severe mental disorders in India. This section becomes the potential for Mass Psychosis.
The mental Disorder statistics instigates or compels us to enquire into Phenomena called Psychosis. Psychosis being the Socio- Political expression of Mental disorders it arouses our Interest in Understanding it as Making of the Mental Phenomena, its patterns of manifestations , the elements which constitutes and how it is generated. Psychosis and Mass & Political Psychosis are specific Mental Disorders and Products. The history of the concept of psychosis can be traced from the time it was coined in 1845 and has unfolded into multiple forms till the present day. It’s origins are in Greek words- “psyche” meaning the soul and “osis” meaning abnormal condition. Fundamentally it was coined to distinguish other disorders of the mind, i.e. “neurosis,” which was thought to affect the nervous system.
We will attempt to diagnose Psychosis in its Historical aspects which includes its origins and phenomenological aspects which will deal with its forms of manifestation and blooming.. It is noteworthy that following his tryst with Hegelian philosophy, Karl Marx laid down the foundation for a concrete psychological theory of consciousness that opened completely new perspectives for psychological science’ Hence Marxist can interpret Psychosis as the Inversion of reality by way of ruthless suppression through civilization and working classes. Hence our preliminary interest lies in differentiation of Psychosis from Neurosis, as different types of Mental disorders..
Based on the groundwork laid down by Karl Marx and Hegel, it was Psychoanalysis which worked on discovery of Laws of Formation of Psychosis. The groundwork of Modern mental disorders have been laid down by Capitalism and the production process by way of repressing the Prehistoric & Archaic and which possibly helped Psychoanalysis to develop Methodology to discover the laws of its formation and decipher the essence of Psychosis. The relationship between Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud are highly proactive and supportive of each other. We have already seen elsewhere Marx’s First Chapter on value – which discovers the laws underlying Value essence and Value manifestation or existence. Similarly we will see the relevance of Law of Inversion in Freudian- Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Psychosis!
Neurosis is a mild mental disorder NOT arising from organic diseases – instead, it can occur from stress, depression or anxiety caused by social and historical factors. Psychosis is a major personality disorder characterized by mental and emotional disruptions, marked by Inversion or collapse of Reality and has socially disastrous implications also. While neurosis refers to the inner struggles and mental and physical disturbances, psychosis refers to “insanity” or “madness”. These symptoms interfere with a person’s perception of reality and include hallucinations, delusions, disturbed thought processes or paranoia. Psychoanalysis in particular has attempted to deal with its characteristics on different Platforms and at different stages of Human history. Delusion & hallucinations are the main Symptoms of high degree of ramifications. Let us see its main characteristics provided in the table ABOVE.
It should be noted that as per recent research, Psychosis is situational and ‘Un Conscious’ and in most of the cases, Sexual or instinctual trauma experienced in Childhood serve as its trigger. The paternalistic, Authoritarian Upbringing of children makes them more prone to depression and other personality and mental disorders. PSYCHOTIC actions are directed at social and external world and invariably at various Individuals, Groups and Mass of people are considered and treated in action and in thoughts as enemies from Birth! It can be considered as Mass psychosis. We will have to discover the Roots and root cause of and Mechanisms of occurrence OF Psychotic Episodes and Psychoanalysis alone can attempt to answer this Question.
FREUDIAN MODEL OF PSYCHOSIS- The Loss of Reality in Psychosis
We have done ‘Diagrammatic representation’ Sigmund Freud’s Article on ‘Psychosis & Neurosis’ above. To conclude “in a psychosis, this same ego, in the service of the id, withdraws from a piece of reality. Thus for a neurosis the decisive factor would be the predominance of the influence of reality, whereas for a psychosis it would be the predominance of the “ id” and “It can hardly be doubted that the world of phantasy plays the same part in psychosis and that there, too, it is the ‘storehouse’ from which the materials or the pattern for building the perverted or inverted reality are derived. But whereas the new, imaginary external world of a psychosis attempts to put itself in the place of external reality”. The desires of the id are not manipulated by experience or thought”. ID’, is the part of the personality that contains our primitive impulses—such as thirst, anger, Sexual hunger and works towards their ‘instant’ gratification or release. According to Freud, we are born with our ‘ID”. Examples of ‘ID” are- Self-Preservation, Sudden Emotional Outbursts, Jealousy, Envy. ‘ID” is entirely ‘Unconscious”.
In Freud’s opinion PSYCHOSIS is mental condition whereby the Patient or affected person completely looses touch with the reality. “Thus for a neurosis the decisive factor would be the predominance of the influence of reality, whereas for a psychosis it would be the predominance of the id.”. Psychosis is characterized by some sense as distorted or inverted reality. A psychotic episode or disorder is results into one or more of the following five Forms of expressions: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought, disorganized behavior, negative symptoms According to Freudian theory, the ‘id’ is the component of personality that forms the basis of our most primitive impulses and instinctual part of the mind that contains sexual and aggressive (Death) drive . Since the Ego has suffered an irreparable injury and damage from the onslaught of the Ruthless Reality, EGO is dead and cannot counter it, (All myths bear Sexual messages and Death instinct. “ In classical Freudian psychoanalytic theory, the death drive (German: Todestrieb) is the drive toward death and destruction, often expressed through behaviors such as maddening aggression and self-destructiveness. Here the ‘Death instincts’ establish their predominance over ‘Life Instincts’. Sexual Drives and aggression create their own reality since ‘ID” becomes the driving force, the drive for aggression is an external representation of the death drive. The death drive seeks destruction, life’s return to an inorganic state.
We can draw Freud’s Model of ‘Psychosis’ where in Anxiety plays a major role and it is aroused by dangerous impulses from ‘within’. It is an internalized fear. “The impelling force behind anxiety is repression. Hence to understand anxiety which very often seems to be free floating and hence apparently in explicable, one has to search for the repression behind them. Studies on neurotics have revealed that anxiety is very often a result of repressed fear of castration
The Anxiety causes Paralysis and near death of EGO which is the Rational Agency which could have steered through the Preconscious. The Upsurge of Psychotic Delusions, hallucinations Dreams springing up of the Repressed Myths and Legends in the, pre-history and archaic Middle Age Forms into Modern Age Forms the basis of Psychosis. Hence Psychosis is manifestation of the stored repressed material beyond Individual consciousness and find passage to constitute ‘Social Reality”..
Mass Psychosis in Germany Post World War 1
It is noteworthy that in 1883, Germany Eugenics’, the erroneous Science grounded in heredity and good breeding began flourishing. Scientists soon discovered the works of Francis Galton and Gregor Mendel who worked on cross breeding in ‘pea plants’ and provided Plank, for Scientists to Control Genes and Color and opening the field of genetics to a tumultuous century of research to control Breeding. Swastika’s long history saw it that it became the true representation of German nationalists, who endorsed and swaddled theory that they had descended from an ancient ‘master race’ known as the Aryans. The Nazis developed a coherent Aryan Origin myth and provided the German people currently under severe despair with a distinguished ancestry precisely because they wished to glorify a German Nation severely. Humiliated in 1918 by military defeat at the end of First World War and followed by Versailles Treaty. Nazism sprung up after the Defeat of Germany and Spartacus revolt of 1919-20 as resultant of silent Anti Semitism spreading over from Seventeen Century and more vocal from the second Half Eighteenth Century (Illustrations). The foundations of Nazi Party was laid down by the upswing of Hatred particularly from 1870. (Details) Thus Nazi Party’s rise was outcome of and creation by German Society vibrating from inside, from ‘Within. Hitler promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty and restore the dignity of the German people. The phenomenon witnessed in Germany was nothing less than outbreak of epidemic of insanity. It was found by Ultra Nationalists that this erroneous magic envelope and suppress all social conflicts into oneness and enforced unrestrained Megalomaniac- Adolf Hitler. It suppressed popular discontent under the garbs of fuming Hatred of Jews. ..
Hitler armed with all powers of Monopoly capital made all out efforts by crushing the revolutionary upsurges of working masses to strengthen the suppression and vanquish the ‘Rational’ and Human reason. In Psychoanalytic terms the Ego was destroyed reason under conditions of despair and aroused the Mythical racial Aryan solution through the ‘Collective Unconscious’. Sigmund Freud had compared the relationship between the “ID” and the ‘EGO” to that of a horse and rider.4 The horse represents the ID, a powerful force that offers the energy to propel forward motion. The rider represents the EGO, the guiding force that directs the power of the ID toward a goal
However Psychosis represents process of its inversion. Paralysis and near death of ‘Ego’ enabled NAZIs to effectively ensure collapse of EGO and flare up of delusions rooted in Archaic Aryan symbols and myths to aggressively target the social and class conflicts. This under the guise of Science constituted the Core Of NAZI – Hitler’s propagation of it since 1923 to made it was critically carried out by Dr. Karl Brand, Hitler’s personal physician and organizer of Aktion (Campaign for Mass murder). 1870s, Schliemann discovered layers of civilizations dating back thousands of years, and declared the oldest to be Troy. He discovered around 1,800 depictions of a symbol that resembled a cross with bent arms: the swastika. Also the Poster designed in September 1930 Reichstag election summarizing Nazi ideology in a single image. A Nazi sword kills a snake, COBRA, the sharp blade passing through a red Star of David
The work of Sigmund Freud and psychoanalyst were suppressed and the ideas of Behaviorism gained Ground. NAZI theorist Alfred Rosenberg It constituted ‘Aryan” Race as the most Superior Race. Nazis and Hitler turned Swastika into Symbol of Hate, into Lethal Genocidal weapon to steer through the Hate propaganda campaign and suppress Human reason. Hitler added new symbolism to the colors as well and interpreted the FLAG VERSION WITH SWASTIKA as, “The red expressed the social thought underlying the movement. White the national thought,” and that the black swastika was an emblem of the “ARYAN RACE”, and “the ideal of creative work which is in itself and always will be anti-Semitic.”
His first target was Austria for Hitler. Austria which declared its independence from German State in 1919 became the first enemy. “For Protection of Germany, Complete destruction of Austria from its roots was absolutely essential”(Hitler- MeinKamph). The NAZI history for Austrian Jews from 1919 resembles that of India -Pakistan partition and Pakistan & Muslim Hatred for rightwing ultra Patriotic forces. Hitler’s hatred for Father and his Oedipal moorings are discernible in Main Kampf and has been transformed into Jewish hatred.
The rise of Nazism with flare up of collective psychosis particularly after proletarian Spartacus Uprising led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht was crushed bloodedly. The Graph German General Social Survey of 1980, exactly reflects the Nazi indoctrination and anti-Semitic beliefs in Germany and demonstrates the rise of Collective Psychosis after 1920 and reaching high peak in 1930 and its fading away 1940 onwards after disastrous defeat of German Nazi patriotism. It is interesting to note that primal myths around SWASTIKS symbol had the same graph . SWASTIKA as religious Symbol with all variations has been made illegal and public display has been banned in Germany.
Artistic Representation of Individual and Collective Psychosis
Reference to Nazism brings us close to concept of ‘Collective Psychosis’ and so also to Jungian Psychoanalysis. Carl Jung was considered initially as sympathetic to Nazism. However at latter stage Carl Jung began commenting on mass Psychosis and Nazism. His Depiction of Mass psychosis in a Video appears to be significant.
Jung criticized Freud for limiting himself only to the individual unconscious of his patients and disregarding the powerful layer of the collective unconscious, which is a key factor for both the individual and the collective psyche. Having analyzed various images in myths, traditions, fairy tales, dreams, poems, religions, neurotic and psychotic cases, Jung believes that he has discovered “in this lowest layer of the collective unconscious the so-called ‘archetypes”
We completely differ from Jung who identifies Freudian Unconscious as Individual Unconscious. Contrary to Jung’s claims, Freud’s Unconscious is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of conscious awareness. It also is reservoir of accumulated Myths, Legends and Artifices’. Freud’s Unconscious is Universal in nature and all ‘Repressed’ over period of Centuries and epochal unfolding of the Civilization through social repression. For Freud, ‘Collective Unconsciousness” stores up archaic remnants and inherited myths, legends, Archetypes and so on. Freud’s Unconscious, has Universal dimensions. On the surface, the differences between theories of Freud and Jung will appear to be difficult to stomach , but finally they support each other. It is in fact Jung as Freud’s Pupil attempted to expand and refined Freud’s theories into Cross Cultural Philosophy. Archetypical characters, Images and situations are worked out. Archetypes cultivate the collective Unconscious. . Their increased interaction is required and which will assist both in therapy sessions, professional interactions and social analysis.. It will be interesting to provide Artistic Expression to Jungian representation of Mass or Collective Psychosis.
What Psychoanalysis represents Psychosis has Parallels in Artistic expressions provided by Great renowned painters also.
During our visit to Van Gogh Museum in 2018 we could see and were exposed to works of this great renowned Artist. It was known to us that he suffered from Psychosis. Like so many viewers one of his painting- a self portrait drawn in 1889 struck me also. Striking features were his Psychic expressions and his depiction of the ‘sliced ear’. Eight months earlier, on 23rd December 1889, Van Gogh had severely mutilated, amputated his left ear, Van Gogh admitted it in to St. Paul’s Asylum on May 8, 1889. ‘ Van Gogh depicts himself with a gaunt face and haggard expression. The Portrait depicts the close relationship between depression and psychosis.
Few psychoanalysts and Critiques have identified Babri Masjid Demolition, Dnyanyapi Masjid- and wave of destruction and violence against Jews across Germany in 1938 as illustrations of Flare up of Collective psychosis in which Collective Artifacts, Myths and Legend well rooted in Sexual and death drive of ID, Become the Agents of the Driving Force named ‘ID”.
‘LOVE JIHAD LAW’- INCHING TOWARDS NURENBURG LAW?”
While Revisiting NAZI history we stumble against ‘Nuremburg Laws” which is important mile stone forbidding Inter faith marriages. The ‘LOVE JIHAD” Law which is in force in Northern & other states appears to be step towards replication of Nuremburg Law’. The current spread of hatred foaming against other religions getting converted into based on delusions and paranoia suggest that India may be inching towards replication of Nuremburg Laws.
Reichstag unanimously framed Nuremberg Law in 1933 and enacted on 15th September 1935 forbidding and complete prevention of Marriages between Jews and German- Aryan NAZI’s s claimed that “race mixing” through marriage weakened Germany
The Nuremberg Laws Anti-Semitic and racist in its essence and expression were enacted with intentions of “The Protection of German Blood and German Honor, which forbade marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews and Germans. It also prevented the employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households. Second part of the Nuremburg Law was the Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens. Persons convicted of violating the marriage were imprisoned, and subsequent to 8 March 1938, upon completing their sentences were re-arrested by the Gestapo and sent to Nazi Concentration Camps. The laws were rooted in Adolf Hitler’s psyche since 1924 and which triggered conspiracy theories.
In Indian case the treatment of Females as mere sexual objects, Male Possessiveness of Females , tightening Hindu Familial boundaries around them defines Hardcore Classical Hinduism. The most terrible outcome of this well entrenched Brahminical Patriarchy is its culmination into and resurrection of ‘Collective Psychosis’. ‘Love jihad’, sexual jihad, demographic jihad, interreligious marriages, are all different forms and identities provided to articulated Imagery of sexual rage. Its first appearance of such social Anxiety was in 1920 to propagate it among the community members to Blow up fears of the declining Hindu population. ‘Love Jihad Law’, is peak expression of unprecedented rise of Islam phobia in recent years. It targets the Inter Faith ‘Love’. This Psychosis and identified conspiracy theory fully resembles the “Anti- Semitic ‘trope of Jewish World Domination’ claimed by NAZIS. The intensified Propaganda against Muslims and roomers and propaganda of export of Females to Islamic states springs from well entrenched Patriarchy of ‘Aryanism’ and paternalism. Both are enshrined and drenched into assumption that Hindu Women are possessed by men and defense of their sexual purity and protection from Muslims, Islamic conversion is solely dependent upon ruthless and tight control of females by Hindu Males who have right to reject Female consent or options FOR “Interfaith Marriages ‘The theory of “global Islamist conspiracy” to lure Hindu women sponsored by few hard core rightwing organizations is intended to TRIGGER SEXUAL ANXIETIES in the psyche of those in whose Un- Conscious mythology is well entrenched. The protection of Hindu Women from Muslims has become their sole objective to define ‘Hindu Patriotism
Feminine Poetic Verses offer Deadly Blows to Patriarchy and Psychosis.
Founding of Sanatan Dharama, rooted in Anthropologist, Susan Wadley in her Anthropological and studies says that Harassment by in-laws on issues related to dowry is characteristic of the Indian setting. Its prevalence in Hindu and Muslim, both religions is very strong. It has emerged as a risk factor for poor mental health. This age-old practice continues to survive and has been a significant factor that has driven many women to suicide like Sita who jumps into Fire! Reformers like Aleem Khan Falaki (Hyderabad), Hamid Umar Dalwai (Maharashtra) are few illustrations of the Muslim Reformers fighting for eradication of Dowry systems and Gender Equality in full cooperation with Reformers from Hindu Religion.
The sociologist Susan Wadley, (Anthropologist) Author of North Indian Folk Tradition launches sever criticism against Indian patriarchy in her renowned studies. She examined the identity of women in folklore, myths, and legends rooted in history, observed that the Indian woman is constantly made to adopt contradictory roles – the nurturing roles as daughters, mothers, wives, and as daughter-in-Laws, and the stereotyped role of a weak and helpless woman. Her mental strength is constatntly under threat in view of being pushed into Passivity. Also Domestic Violence and abuse of all type including sexual. In her study of Ramayana & Study of South East Asia (1997) she also quotes the poem-
Oh Rama) You trampled on the rights of women.,
You made your wife Sita undergo the ordeal of fire
To prove her chastity, Such were your male laws, Oh Rama.
Oh Rama, you representative of the Aryans.
When Shambuka, the Untouchable, Tried to gain knowledge,
You beheaded him, Oh Rama.
Leading Female Activist & Dowry Movement Lead Ms. Asha Kulkarni’s Poem (What Difference Does it make) has appropriately brought out the pains and agonies of the Female Life in following Hindi Verses.
Though in India, women are revered as the goddess they are abused also in the same breath. Patriarchy restricts womanhood to motherhood! Shahin Baug movement is the only movement in last few years which displayed the strength of women in political domain as fighters. The movement and protest was led by Women and became Platform for the most marginalized section—Hindu and the Muslim women on mass scale and exhibited collective strength. However the same was repressed.
India has a very strong Patriarchal past history like Greece and other countries and Victimization of Females and misguiding Females is regular feature of Indian Culture and its deepest Archaic Roots are distinctively visible in Indian Mythologies. Geeta Dutt’s Marathi song voices and articulates most appropriately Sita’s affliction , agony and pain suppressed for centuries and Ages in Mythological narrative. It has never been treated as fundamental Criticism of Ramayana and which points out acceptance of Mythological Patriarchy in which Sita did not get justice from Ram even after fourteen years of ‘VANVAS’ and still accused of Fidelity speaks out loudly but the audience never searches into the depths and gets to the bottom of the truth in view of strong Patriarchal Indian culture. Rama’s Archetype wedging deadly War against Ravana flares up as Psychosis but are Sita’s agonies and her tears for being denounced by Society and Ramayana Lovers turn themselves into like the Dhobis or Washer men in Ramayan Myth?
Indian Epics are full of stories which brings out the repressive patriarchy. Pandava’s inability to Protect Draupadi, Ahilyadevi who fell victim to God Indra’s seduction and she is turned to stone by Gautama’s curse and returns to her human form only after being brushed by Rama’s foot .
The blow on her Integrity and truthfulness Sita commits suicide by Jumping into Fire. If Interpreters of Ramayana Highlight and explore Sita’s Agonies, Pains and Injustice suffered and her Curses it will be deadly blow to Indian Patriarchy and Mass Psychosis. Such day is not far off!.
Hate Campaigns & Search for megalomaniac from Mythology.
In case of Germany and India, the parallels are alarming. First world war German Nation defeated by allies and was followed by Versailles Treaty of 1918. Austria’s partition from Germany and Indian Independence Movement with Partition in 1947 meant defeat of Hindu Nationalism. However Partition provided the best opportunity for ‘Hindu Nationalists’ to parade ‘’HINDU NATION’ as erroneous Magical Concept. However it began to make all round Universal Impact across India after digging into Ramjanmabhumi Ayodhya Dispute in 1992. Since then ‘Hindu Nation’ began to work into ‘Unconscious Social Psyche’ and envelope and suppress all social conflicts into oneness and enforced unrestrained yearnings for Megalomaniac-Leader, power hungry and obsessed with Racial Purity like Adolf Hitler. In India’s case it began working by suppressing popular social discontent, any revolutionary aspirations and surge against capitalist mode of Production and exploitation under the garbs of fuming Hatred of Muslims and Islam. Passage of last more than thirty years of History have witnessed furious search for emergence of such ‘Megalomaniac’.
Before World war II, RSS Chief’s visit to Italy and Inspired by Mussolini & Adolf Hitler it adopted Hindu Nationalist umbrella. RSS, Hindu Mahasabha adopted the idea of Ethnic Cleansing and propagated need for Genocide”. Evoking Aryan-Hindu Pride identical to German Pride, well rooted in Hindu Mythology and legends amongst the people to propagate extermination of Muslims became the major plank of ideological propaganda.
It was Vinayak Damodar Savarkar who after ten years of rigorous imprisonment under British rule underwent ‘metamorphosis’ and created poetic verses in ‘Veer Ras’, where in through his dreams he articulates Rage against Muslims like whirl winds comparable to clouds and well entrenched in the erotic or instinctual foundations. In his Phantasy he takes hold of the fallen saffron Hindu flag of slain Maratha Peshwas, Sadashivraobhau and Vishwasrao from Panipat battle field and in real life unfurls it as ‘National flag’ of Hindu India. It is not an accident that V.D. Savarkar’s Book ‘Hindutva’ published in 1923 displays ‘Swastika’ Image overshadowing ‘Ohm’ Image at the background. It symbolically represents the rage and combative revenge to integrate and camouflage violence with ascetic tradition.. Instinctual desires are transformed into violence against ‘Muslims’. His Dreams were carried forward by Hindu Mahasabha, RSS , BJP and other rightwing Organizations into Modern times over Nine decades . Genocide becomes the way out in reality for escaping from guilt of keeping away from India’s Freedom struggle as a permanent flowering phantasy. In final verses Savarkar adumbrated his mature political theory that the escape root for resolution of instinctual conflict lies in elevation of dream AND Archetypical phantasy life on to political horizon and driving the displaced instinctual forces on to ‘Other’, as hatred of Muslims and violent genocide! It severed to Camouflaged the struggle against colonial British Rule with phantasized ‘Hindu State’.
Illustrations of Episodes of Collective Psychosis.
We are inclined to provide illustrations of forms of mass psychosis. Blatant attempts to spread Lynching in the Name of ‘Hindu Nationhood’ and RAM. In 2023, number of Psychotic episodes are being reported and are spreading in states of West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Telangana at the behest of Ultra Rightwing groups leading to witnessed such violent clashes across India. Ramayana Mythology as taught authenticates suppression of Sita’s voice, her agonies and Hanuman Chalisa which bars Female participations in innumerable activities and suppression of voices of Female wrestlers in 2023 have added as important illustrations of Psychosis. .
Let us take one more episode of collective or mass psychosis driven by Anxiety which promote deadly attack against the ‘Ego’ and work towards its collapse. Like the developments in NAZI Germany from 1920, where in Number of Females- Women had fallen victim to NAZI EVOCATION of Swastika and propaganda directed against the imagined brutalities by Jews from 16th to 18th Century against German Aryans, Large number of Indian Females too have fallen victim to Propaganda BY Mughal Kings against Hindu population and have suppressed advances over centuries.
Let us see, how the delusions and hallucinations reflects even in the teenager’s deeply depressed mood and convictions that the current situation is the resultant of crimes committed by ‘Others’ in the archaic past and in 16th to 18th Century of Indian history. Thus the innocent teenager, out of Delusions and fears evokes and promotes the collective psychotic expressions for targeting other religions founded in conspiracy theories.
Young Teen Agers, particularly even the innocent Females get engaged in verbal Confrontations with Muslim Maulavis Driven by Anxiety Disorder and intensified propaganda. Following is the verbatim expressions of the teenager Challenges “Historical dominations and Atrocities and Violence” on Hindu Population by Mughal Kings and evoking the Hatred generated by killings of Two Sadhus in Palghar in recent past and chanting slogans of ‘Allha ho Akbar.’ The Female Teenager illustrates phantasies of ‘Shivling destruction’ under Islamic Rule and revengeful teachings of ‘Kuran’ against Non Muslims, against ’Kafirs (Hindus), against other Religions . As representative of the group around her, driven by Islam Phobia delivers venomous- poisonous speech by inverting Indian History. and thus converting entire Human History as Religious confrontations. Slashing out at King Akbar and other kings “who destroyed Hinduism and our culture ‘Our Temples” burnt and destroyed” . Elevating the Mughals as those who ruled India. “Coming from Arabastan”, she identifies them as ‘Do kaudike Log’ and with support from the young crowds around her – hits out at Rohingya and Bangladeh Muslims . Finally she reaches out into the core of the volcanic outburst by Claims on ‘Gyanvyapi Mandir- Masjid’ clash.
This Narrative of the Video illustrates Psychic proliferation and Phantasization. The outburst of young provides us glimpses into what is Collective psychosis. The innocent ignorant Teenager males also relentlessly argue that Secularism is now thing of the PAST”, of Old Age and younger generation will not tolerate it. ‘Bhaichara Gaya Bhadme’ (Brotherhood gone to Dustbin) . The Phantasised past of the middle age and ‘SANATAN DHARM’ Religion has taken over their mental functioning. It stands out as Articulation of Collective Psychosis,. First landmark expression is to promote Cult of Nathuram Godse, Mahatma Gandhi’s Killer.
Articulation of Instinctual Rage is rooted in Primal Myths & Prejudices on Socio- Cultural Level forms ‘Level Two’. It may result into transition to THE Third and final level. This has to do with the fascist use of, organized action or the ‘common action’ of organized groups. Peculiarity of fascism in its creation and use of the ‘storm trooper tactic’. A form of genocide or ethnic cleansing is implicit in the program of every fascist movement, The Glorification of Ancestral Pride and camouflaging of the thousands and centuries of progress of civilization, growth of modern Industry, means of production and communication, creation and formation of working classes and mass movements since Nineteenth Century, struggles cultural advances and social revolutions is mandatory for transition to third or final stage. Video provides how Delusions and Paranoia depicted as above takes possession of mental apparatus of communities and human hoards and compel and provokes them to take recourse to inflammatory, maddening convulsions and actions through Religious conflicts.
Various outbreaks of Psychic convulsions from defendants of those contemplating setting Ablaze Muslims like burning Efficacies of Ravana on Dussehra and defendants and propagators of ‘Love Jihad’ laws etc. leads to Psychotic Image or Phantasm of Collective Image of ‘almighty Killer’ emerging as articulate expression of Collective Psychosis. It creates Image of a Psychopath, in the Garbs of Adolf Hitler, who, can and will carry out the mass liquidation of ‘Other”.
In Psychoanalytic terms it can be termed as Mass Psychosis in which Archetypical Images in the Collective Unconscious are subjected to compression & synthasization Under the guiding force of Repression but driven by instinctual ‘ID’ by toppling Rational ‘IGO’ and expressing instinctual Rage directed against ‘Social Object” the Ram Archetype suffers from terrible distortion and is converted into and resembling Hitlerian Demon.
Freudian enquiry has helped us to search the interiors of ‘Unconscious of the collective Psyche’ and the Political expressions it manifests as Psychosis in its mass Articulation
However Mass psychosis is Phenomena involving synthesization of innumerable elements which give birth to ‘Psychic Epidemic’ at specific Juncture of Human History when Large portion of society suffers from destruction of ‘Ego’ through infection of Hatred and looses touch with reality. It gives birth to and results into Totalitarian Dictatorship. The Psychic Drives results into Socio- Political Panic.
Before classifying three Levels of Volcanic upsurge of Political Mass Psychosis. Above is the Dream Image or Phantasized Collective Image of ‘almighty Killer’ emerging as articulate expression of Collective Psychosis. It creates Image of a Psychopath, in the Garbs of Adolf Hitler, who, can and will carry out the mass liquidation of ‘Other”.
Freudian enquiry has helped us to search the interiors of ‘Unconscious of the collective Psyche’ and the Political expressions it manifests as Psychosis in its mass Articulation Forms the Final Stage is culmination of passage .
The above Image distinguishes Three Stages. We have passed from stage one to Two. And we are roaming around entry into Stage three. Stage three creates Monster – Megalomaniac with use of Storm Troopers. We can see that abnormal state of psychosis by way of synthesized manifest expression of associations of Phantasies, distortions of Time and space parameters is subject to its maturation. In this case ‘ID’ and the sexual instincts WEHICH PROVIDE ‘death sentence to reality’ is the driving force, ‘Horse Riders’ springing from Archaic Imagery and Architypes which projects different images of the Devouring Monster in the Garbs of a ‘UNIFIED GOD’. The God remains at the Mercy of Monopoly capital. The psychotic mass aspires to create unified GOD as INCARNATION of RAMA in deadly fight against the RAVANA’ by completely suppressing SITA’s Plight, pain and Tears, her sacrifice! Like NAZI Swastika, the Arrows showered from ‘DHANUSH’ become killer weapon. SITA is pushed down and repressed forever by the Ultra Patriots, and reduced to ashes through Primal mythical Fire.
The defendants of those contemplating setting Ablaze Muslims like burning Efficacies of Ravana on Dussehra and defendants and propagators of ‘Love Jihad’ laws are is elevation of Stage Two. However this passage is not easy to create ‘Hindu Rastra’. For NAZI Germany there was no Precedence. In India case consequence of escalation to all out War, Concentration Camps, liquidation of ‘Other’, i.e. stage three is marked by Anxiety of failure.
We are aware of Freud’s interpretation of failure of such ‘Wish Fulfillment’ dreams which collapses into Anxiety Dreams. Popular unrest has been witnessed in last few years along with the strength of Feminism. Anti- CAA movement demonstrated unity of all religious Feminism across India, Farmers Protests broke out rapidly across the country and mark the possibility of ‘de – libidinization’ or ‘de aggresivization’ of the Instinctual drives which trigger psychosis. Hence time is not far off to imagine scenarios when mass movement from all corners will ripen and Feminism with strong presence will join hands with the working masses to rise above the situation to confront mass Psychosis.
ARTISTIC PORTRAIL OF NIGHTMARE FOR MASS PSYCHOTICS
In such situation, the current wave of mass psychosis will be subjected to far more regressive frightening fall out into prehistoric Archaic when all suppressed Imagery from ‘Sita’s tragedy’, her Fire Ordeal, her tears and images of her body falling into Fire will awaken fire into hearts of those women who witnessed the virtual situation with loud cry of shock. In such case Fantasies will turn into Nightmare for Psychotics ! As above in the Artistic Image, the Psychotic Mass driven by Anxiety and Nightmare driving the Frightening Fantasy in which Sita rises from the ashes and from fire with huge support of the Rebellious laboring masses and holding ‘PLAYCARD’ displaying ‘Smash Patriarchy, Smash Capitalism’ and depicting the fall of Hitelarian Megalomaniac. Such Anxiety, Nightmarish Dream images will strike blow at the roots of their beloved Patriarchy and War Arrogance, entrenched in Mythology through Ramayana, Mahabharata and other stories is ‘de – libidinization’ or ‘de aggresivization’ of the Instinctual drives which triggers psychosis. The Panic which such futuristic imagery of Sita’s rise from the Ashes & Fire supported by mass movements Holding Placard, joining hands with the Laboring masses can CREATE and will be a deadly blow to ‘Mass Psychosis” created by Hatred resulting into smashing their Beloved Patriarchy and repressive Capitalism. The collapse and defeat of unifying Monster of Psychosis can be identified as ‘Self Discovery” by masses.
The Mythological DHOBI’s- Washer rooted in the Psyche will discover their that doubts about Female SITA’s Fidelity and adulterousness as were their maddening Psychic disease”. They will be able to search into their own Psyche to overpower their tumultuous Psychotic convulsions against Muslims treated as followers of Ravana and thus return to Normalcy and love for all ! For Sigmund Freud, ‘Anxiety Dreams or Nightmares are window to the ‘Social Unconscious’. Hitler ruthlessly imposed Patriarchy after Nazi win but in India no possibility of its repetition. German lessons speaks for conquest of Psychosis through mass education and learning from history. We will like to reassert Karl Marx’s conclusion-‘History repeats itself First time as Tragedy and Second as farce”.
Anil Pundlik Gokhale is an Engineer by profession. As a non regular writer on political literature I have always been attempting to integrate Psychology and Marxism. I have recently published books ‘Condensation And Condescension In Dreams And History: Essay – From Sigmund Freud To E P Thompson’ by Author House London. Psychoanalysis & A- Historical Story of GENGHIS KHAN, Author House- London.